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Toyota Supra

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The Toyota Celica Supra was a sports car/grand tourer produced by Toyota Motor Company from 1979 to 2002. The styling of the Toyota Celica Supra was derived from the Toyota Celica, but it was both longer and wider.[1] Starting in mid-1986, the Supra (in its third generation, MKIII) became its own model and was no longer based on the Celica. In turn, Toyota also stopped using the prefix Celica and began just calling the car Supra.[2] Due to the similarity and past of the Toyota Celica's name, it is frequently mistaken for the Toyota Supra, and vice versa.

The Supra also traces much of its roots back to the Toyota 2000GT with the main instance being its engine. The first three generations were offered with a direct descendant to the 2000GT's M engine. All four generations of Supra produced have an inline 6-cylinder engine, one of the few piston engine configurations with theoretically perfect mechanical balance, leading to very low vibration from the engine.

The name is a combination of Celica and the word Supra. "Celica" is derived from Latin and its literal translation is "celestial" or "from the heavens". "Supra" is a word that is derived from Latin that stands for "over, above, beyond, or greater than". Therefore, a translation to English would be something like "from above the heavens" for the entire term.

Along with this name and car Toyota also included its own logo for the Supra. It is derived from the original Celica logo (it's just orange instead of blue). Often people think it is some sort of swan, but it more closely resembles a dragon. The logo was on Supras until 1989 when Toyota switched to its current oval company logo.

In 1999, Toyota ceased sales of the Supra in the United States[2] and in 2002 Toyota officially stopped production of the Supra in Japan.

Mark I (1979-1981)Edit

Toyota-supra1

Toyota Celica Supra MK I
Toyota
aka Mk. I
Production 1979 - 1981
Class
Body Style
Length 181.7 in (4615.2 mm)
Width 65.0 in (1651.0 mm)
Height 50.8 in (1290.3 mm)
Wheelbase 103.5 in (2628.9 mm)
Weight 2800 lb (1270.1 kg)
Transmission 5-speed W50 manual
4-speed A40D automatic
4-speed A43D automatic
Engine 2.0 L (1988 cc) M-EU I6
2.0 L (1988 cc) M-TEU I6
2.6 L (2563 cc) 4M-E I6
2.8 L (2759 cc) 5M-E I6
Power
Similar
Platform MA4x
Fuel Capacity 16.1 U.S. GAL (60.4 L) [3]
Designer

The first generation Supra was based largely upon the Toyota Celica liftback, but was longer by 5.1 in (129.5 mm). The doors and rear section stayed the same length as Celica but rear panels differed. The most important change was the swap to an Inline-6 instead of the stock Celica's 4-cylinder engine. Toyota's original plan for the Supra at this time was to make it a competitor to the very popular Datsun (now Nissan) Z-car.

1979Edit

In 1978 Toyota began production of the Mark I Supra in Japan. The year it debuted in the United States and Japan was in 1979. The USA Mark I (chassis code MA46) was originally equipped with a 110 hp (82 kW) 2.6 L (2563 cc) 12-valve SOHC inline-6 engine (4M-E). Simultaneously in 1979, the Japanese Mark I (chassis code MA45) was offered with a 110 hp (82 kW) 2.0 L 12-valve SOHC inline-6 engine (M-EU). Both were the first Toyota engines equipped with electronic fuel injection.[2][4]

Drivetrain options for the Mark I were either a 5-speed manual (W50) or an optional 4-speed automatic transmission (A40D). Both transmissions featured an overdrive gear. The top gear in the 5-speed was its overdrive gear whereas the automatic transmission featured an overdrive gear that would engage at speeds over 35 mph. The drivetrain for the Supra retained the T series solid rear axle configuration of the Celica in the Japanese MA45 version and a larger F series (and optional Limited Slip Differential) in the MA46 and MA47. The car also came standard with 4-wheel disc brakes and featured a four-link rear suspension with coil springs, lateral track bar, and stabilizer bar. The front suspension consisted of MacPherson struts and a stabilizer bar.

On the inside of the Supra one had an option of power windows and power locks as part of the convenience package. The convenience package also included cruise control and special door trim with door pull straps, with an optional sunroof. As for standard features, in the center console there was an extendable map light and a fliptop armrest, which provided storage. Some other features were the tilt steering wheel, deep zippered pockets on the backs of the front seats, and tonneau cover under the liftback. The dashboard also contained a state-of-the-art (at the time) AM/FM/MPX 4-speaker stereo radio, analog clock, and tachometer as part of the instrument panel.

1980Edit

In 1980, the Japanese Mark I (also branded with the MA46 chassis code) was offered with a 145 hp (108 kW) 2.0 L (1988 cc) 12-valve SOHC Turbocharged inline-6 engine (M-TEU). The engine was equipped with a Garrett T03 Turbo, but was not intercooled. This was the first Toyota engine to utilize a turbocharger.[4]

The changes for the 1980 US version were different, but mostly cosmetic. The interior received a redesigned center console and a digital quartz clock. On the exterior were redesigned side view mirrors, the 14x5.5 aluminum rims, which were optional in 1979, are now standard (the 1979s had steel rims with plastic wheel covers standard). In addition body molded mudflaps became available. On the copper metallic and white cars the mudflaps were painted the body color while the mudflaps were left black on all other colors. On the rear of the mudflaps, the word "Celica" was painted in white lettering.[5]

The official Toyota Supra Site[2] also notes that there was an addition of optional leather-trimmed seating and automatic climate-control.

1981Edit

In the coming year, 1981, the Supra received an upgrade in displacement with the 2.8 L (2759 cc) 5M-E engine. It is still a 12-valve SOHC engine, but makes 116 hp (87 kW) and 145 ft·lbf (197 N·m) of torque. The cars automatic transmission was changed to the revised Toyota A43D and it gained a revised final drive gearing. Because of the change in engine and transmission they dubbed a new chassis code of MA47. The final year of the MK I Supra it achieved a 0-60 MPH time of 10.24 seconds and finished the 1/4 mile in 17.5 seconds at 77.7 MPH.[3]

Also in 1981, a new Sports Performance Package became an option, which included sport suspension, raised white letter tires, and front and rear spoilers. This also marked the last year that the 8-track cartridge was offered in any Supras.[2][5]


Quick InfoEdit

Mark I Quick information by Chassis code
Code Year Engine Power Torque Transmission Market
MA45 1979 2.0 L (1988 cc) M-EU I6 110 hp (82 kW) 136 ft·lbf (184 N·m) 5-speed W50 manual
4-speed A40D automatic
JPN
MA46 2.6 L (2563 cc) 4M-E I6 110 hp (82 kW) 136 ft·lbf (184 N·m) USA
1980 2.0 L (1988 cc) M-TEU turbo I6 145 hp (108 kW) 156 ft·lbf (211 N·m) JPN
2.6 L (2563 cc) 4M-E I6 110 hp (82 kW) 136 ft·lbf (184 N·m) USA
MA47 1981 2.8 L (2759 cc) 5M-E I6 116 hp (87 kW) 145 ft·lbf (197 N·m) 5-speed W50 manual
4-speed A43D automatic
JPN USA

GalleryEdit

Mark II (1982-1986)Edit

800px-2nd-Toyota-Supra

Toyota Celica Supra MK II
Toyota
aka Mk.II
Toyota Celica XX
Production 1982 - 1986
Class
Body Style
Length 183.5 in (4660.9 mm)
Width 67.7 in (1719.6 mm)
Height 52.0 in (1320.8 mm)
Wheelbase 102.9 in (2613.7 mm)
Weight 3000 lb (1360.8 kg)
Transmission 5-speed W58 manual
4-speed A43DL automatic
4-speed A43DE automatic
Engine 2.0 L (1988 cc) M-TEU I6
2.0 L (1988 cc) M-TE I6
2.0 L (1988 cc) 1G-EU I6
2.0 L (1988 cc) 1G-GEU I6
2.8 L (2759 cc) 5M-E I6
2.8 L (2759 cc) 5M-GE I6
Power
Similar
Platform MA6x
GA6x
Fuel Economy 18-21 MPG city
20-28 MPG hwy
Fuel Capacity 16.1 U.S. GAL (60.4 L)
Designer

In 1982, Toyota completely redesigned the Celica Supra as well as the entire Celica lineup. In Japan, they were known as Celica XX, but everywhere else the Celica Supra name stuck. Still being based around the Celica platform, there were several key differences, most notably the design of the front end and fully retractable pop-up headlights. Other differences would be the inline-6 still present in the Supra instead of the inline-4 as well as an increase in length and wheel base to conform with the overall larger engine.

L-type and P-typeEdit

In the North American market, the Celica Supra was available in two distinct models to accommodate any persons tastes. There was of course the Performance Type (P-type henceforth) and the Luxury Type (L-type henceforth). While being mechanically identical, they were differentiated by the available options; tire sizes, wheel sizes, and body trim. The P-type had fiberglass fender flares over the wheel wells, while the L-type did not. The P-type was also standard with the more sporty 8-way adjustable seats. The P-type did not get the option of a leather interior until 1983. All editions of the P-Type had the same 14x7 aluminum alloy rims and throughout the years the L-Type had 14"x5.5" rims until 1985 when they were changed to a P-type style 15x6. The L-type also had the option of a digital dash with trip computer, whereas the P-Type was only offered with an analog dash (with digital clock). The digital dash featured a digital tachometer, digital speedometer, and electronic fuel level and coolant level gauges. The trip computer could calculate and display various things such as fuel economy in miles-per-gallon, estimated time of arrival (ETA), and distance remaining to destination. Excluding the 1982 model, all P-types were available with headlight washers as an option, but the L-types were never fitted with such an option. Although gear ratios changed throughout the years all P-types came as standard with a limited slip differential.

1982Edit

In the North American market, the Celica Supra's engine was the 2.8 L (2759 cc) 12-valve (2 valves per cylinder) DOHC 5M-GE. Power output was 145 hp (108 kW) and 155 ft·lbf (210 N·m) of torque. The engine utilized an 8.8:1 compression ratio to achieve the power and featured a vacuum advanced distributor. When the car debuted it clocked a 0-60  time of 9.8 seconds and netted a 17.2 second 1/4 at 80 MPH[6]

The standard transmission for this year was the W58 5-speed manual with the A43DL 4-speed automatic transmission being an option for L-types. Both transmissions featured an overdrive gear and the automatic featured a locking torque converter. The top gear in the 5-speed was its overdrive whereas the automatic transmission featured an overdrive gear that would engage at speeds over 35 mph. The 1982 models' rear differential featured a 3.72:1 ratio. The Celica Supra's 4-wheel independent suspension was specially tuned and designed by Lotus and featured variable assisted power rack-and-pinion steering and MacPherson struts up front. As for the rear, it had semi-trailing arm suspension with coil springs and a stabilizer bar. Braking on the Celica Supra was handled by 4-wheel disc brakes.

On the inside this generation had standard power windows, power door locks, and power mirrors as well as a tilt steering wheel. The power door lock was located in the center console next to the power mirror control. The analog dash of this year only went to 85 mph in North America. The optional automatic climate control on the MK I was renovated and was now seen as a standard feature on the MK II. Cruise control was standard in this generation. Toyota also included the retractable maplight as standard, just like with MK I Supras. Some options included the addition of a sunroof, two-tone paint schemes, and 5-speaker AM/FM/MPX tuner with cassette. The optional cassette stereo featured a 105-watt power amplifier and a 7-channel graphic equalizer to control tone. The standard stereo was a 5-channel AM/FM/MPX tuner. Leather was an option on L-Types this year, but P-types were stuck with standard striped cloth.

As far as the outside goes there was no external antenna it was simply located in the front windshield. There was a key lock on the gas tank door and the hatch and bumper were black no matter what color the rest of the car was. The P-types were available with an optional rear sunshade above the hatch glass. The lights in the rear featured a reverse light in the center and the door handles opened the doors by pulling sideways. The front nose badge and B-pillar only read "SUPRA". Although it is believed mudflaps weren't introduced on this generation until 1983, all L-types had front and rear mudflaps.

1983Edit

For the 1983 models not much was altered, but there was an increase in power output to: 150 hp (112 kW) and 159 ft·lbf (216 N·m) of torque from the same 5M-GE. The only real change in the engine area was the switch to an electronic advanced distributor, yet that did not increase the power. Toyota switched to a 4.10:1 rear gear ratio for the P-Type and a 3.73:1 for the L-Type. As for the optional automatic transmission they switched out the A43DL 4-speed for a newly designed A43DE 4-speed. It featured an electronic controller that would adjust its shift pattern for a balance between performance and economy. It was the first in the industry to provide an "Electronically Controlled Transmission" (ECT). This allowed the driver to choose either the "Power" driving mode or "Normal" driving mode at the touch of the button. The "Power" mode provided the quickest acceleration and the "Normal" mode provided the best all-around performance.

On the inside of the car there were virtually no changes, but on the outside they decided to switch to a power antenna and it was the first year both the P-Type and L-Type had standard mudflaps. The B-pillar and nose badge were changed to say "Celica Supra" now and only L-Types were available in two-tone color schemes.

1984Edit

In 1984, Toyota changed quite a bit on the Supra. Power output was increased on the 5-speed models with a bump up to 160 hp (119 kW) and 163 ft·lbf (221 N·m) of torque. The increase was achieved by a mixture of a redesigned intake manifold with "D"-shaped intake runners and an increase in compression ratio to: 9.2:1Cite error: Closing </ref> missing for <ref> tag.

Other changes would be a redesigned, more "integrated" sunshade and spoiler on the rear hatch. The rear spoiler was changed from a one piece to a two piece spoiler. Oddly the L-types of this year were not available with a leather interior, but P-types were. Toyota added a standard factory theft deterrent system and the outside mirrors were equipped with a defogger that activated with the rear defroster. All Supras this year received automatic-off lights that also encompassed an automatic illuminated entry and fade-out system.

While 1985 was to be the last year of the second generation model, delays in production of the third generation model led to a surplus of second generation Supras. During the first half of 1986 the 1985 MK II P-type was still offered for sale, with only minor cosmetic changes as well as the addition of a now mandatory rear-mounted third brakelight on the hatch. These were all labeled officially as 1986 models. P-types were the only model available in 1986.

MK IIs around the worldEdit

The second generation Supra came in a variety of options around the world as well as only being offered during select years.

Most of EuropeEdit

  • Sold from 1982-1986.
    • 82-83: 2.8 L (2759 cc) DOHC 5M-GE 174 hp (130 kW) and 207 ft·lbf (287 N·m) of torque. Analog dash, no fender flares.
    • 84-86: 2.8 L (2759 cc) DOHC 5M-GE 178 hp (133 kW) and 212 ft·lbf (281 N·m) of torque. Digital dash, P-Type fender flares.

Great BritainEdit

  • Sold from 1982-1986.
    • 82-83: 2.8 L (2759 cc) DOHC 5M-GE 178 hp (133 kW) and 212 ft·lbf (281 N·m) of torque. Analog dash, no fender flares.
    • 84-86: 2.8 L (2759 cc) DOHC 5M-GE 178 hp (133 kW) and 212 ft·lbf (281 N·m) of torque. Digital dash, P-Type fender flares.

Australia, Sweden, & SwitzerlandEdit

  • Sold from 1984-1986.
    • 2.8 L (2759 cc) SOHC 5M-E 116 hp (87 kW) and 145 ft·lbf (197 N·m) of torque.
  • In Australia, the Toyota Supra manufactured between 1982-1990, was assessed in the Used Car Safety Ratings 2006 as providing "worse than average" protection for its occupants in the event of a crash.

New ZealandEdit

  • Sold from 1984-1985
    • 2.8 L (2759 cc) DOHC 5M-GE 178 hp (133 kW) and 212 ft·lbf (281 N·m) of torque. Digital dash, P-Type fender flares.

JapanEdit

Template:Further

Quick InfoEdit

Mark II Quick information by Chassis code
Code Year Engine Power Torque Transmission Market
MA61 1982-1983 2.8 L (2759 cc) 5M-GE I6 174 hp (130 kW) 207 ft·lbf (287 N·m) 5-speed W58 manual
4-Speed A43DL automatic (1982)
4-Speed A43DE automatic (1983)
EUR GBR
2.8 L (2759 cc) 5M-GEU I6 160 hp (119 kW) 150 ft·lbf (203 N·m) 5-speed W58 manual JPN
1984-1986 2.8 L (2759 cc) 5M-E I6 116 hp (87 kW) 145 ft·lbf (197 N·m) 5-speed W58 manual
4-Speed A43DE automatic
AUS CHE SWE
2.8 L (2759 cc) 5M-GE I6 178 hp (133 kW) 212 ft·lbf (281 N·m) EUR GBR NZL
2.8 L (2759 cc) 5M-GEU I6 160 hp (119 kW) 150 ft·lbf (203 N·m) 5-speed W58 manual JPN
MA63 1982 2.0 L (1988 cc) M-TEU turbo I6 145 hp (108 kW) 156 ft·lbf (211 N·m) 4-Speed A43D Automatic JPN
1983-1985 2.0 L (1988 cc) M-TEU turbo I6 160 hp (119 kW) 170 ft·lbf (230 N·m)
MA67 1982 2.8 L (2759 cc) 5M-GE I6 145 hp (108 kW) 155 ft·lbf (210 N·m) 5-speed W58 manual
4-Speed A43DL automatic
CAN USA
1983 2.8 L (2759 cc) 5M-GE I6 150 hp (112 kW) 159 ft·lbf (216 N·m) 5-speed W58 manual
4-Speed A43DE automatic
1984 2.8 L (2759 cc) 5M-GE I6 160 hp (119 kW) 163 ft·lbf (221 N·m) 5-speed W58 manual
2.8 L (2759 cc) 5M-GE I6 150 hp (112 kW) 159 ft·lbf (216 N·m) 4-Speed A43DE automatic
1985-1986 2.8 L (2759 cc) 5M-GE I6 161 hp (120 kW) 169 ft·lbf (229 N·m) 5-speed W58 manual
4-Speed A43DE automatic
GA61 1982-1985 2.0 L (1988 cc) 1G-EU I6 125 hp (93 kW) 127 ft·lbf (172 N·m) 5-speed W58 manual
4-Speed A43DL automatic
JPN
1982-1985 2.0 L (1988 cc) 1G-GEU I6 160 hp (119 kW) 134 ft·lbf (181 N·m) 5-speed W58 manual

GalleryEdit

Mark III (1986 1/2-1992)Edit

===

Toyota Supra MK III
Toyota
aka Mk. III
Production 1986 1/2 - 1992
Class
Body Style
Length 182.3 in (4630.4 mm)
Width 68.7 in (1744.9 mm)
Height 51.2 in (1300.5 mm)
Wheelbase 102.2 in (2595.9 mm)
Weight 3500 lb (1587.6 kg)
Transmission 5-speed W58 manual
5-speed R154 manual
4-Speed A340E automatic
Engine 2.0 L (1988 cc) 1G-GTE I6
2.5 L (2491 cc) 1JZ-GTE I6
3.0 L (2954 cc) 7M-GE I6
3.0 L (2954 cc) 7M-GTE I6
Power
Similar
Platform MA7x
GA7x
JZA7x
Fuel Economy 17 MPG city
23 MPG highway [7]
Fuel Capacity 18.5  U.S. GAL (70.0 L) [7]
Designer

In the middle of 1986, Toyota was ready to release its next version of the Supra. The official model year is designated as 1986.5. The bonds between the Celica and the Supra were cut; they were now two completely different kinds of models. The Celica changed to front wheel drive, while the Supra kept its rear wheel drive platform. Though the Mark II and Mark III had similar designs, the engine was updated to a more powerful 3.0 L straight 6. Although only available in naturally aspirated trim in 1986.5, a second version of the engine was introduced in 1987 which featured a turbocharger.

The new Mark III Supra engine was the flagship engine of Toyota's arsenal. Both versions of the engine contained 4 valves per cylinder and dual overhead cams. The turbocharged 7M-GTE engine was Toyota's first distributor-less engine offered in the U.S.and was rated at 232 hp (173 kW) at 5600 RPM while the naturally-aspirated 7M-GE engine was rated at 200 hp (149 kW) at 6000 RPM.

The naturally aspirated came as standard issue with the W58 manual transmission. The turbo versions included the more robust R154 manual transmission. Both were available with the optional 4-speed A340E automatic transmission.

During the year of 1989, the car received new tail lights, a front bumper, badging and side trim amongst other features. Modifications to the wastegate and engine management netted another 2 hp on the turbo model. For the 1991 model year, the wheel design was changed to 5-spoke wheels. Both models wore 16x7 aluminium alloy wheels that were fitted with 225/50/16 tires and full-sized spares on steel wheels.

The A70 Supra was also available in two non-export models in Japan, the JZA70 with a 2.5 L 280 hp (209 kW) twin-turbo 1JZ-GTE, known as 2.5GT Twin Turbo (JZA70), and with a 2.0 L 210 hp (157 kW) twin-turbo 1G-GTE. A special version of the 1JZ-GTE equipped JZA70, the 2.5 Twin Turbo R, had black/grey Recaro seats.

The third-generation Supra represented a great deal of new technology. In 1986, Supras were already equipped with 4-channel ABS and TEMS (Toyota Electronically Modulated Suspension) which gave the driver 2 settings which affected the damper rates. All models were fitted with double wishbone suspensions front and rear. A targa top was offered along with a metal power sliding sunroof (added in '91).

The 7M-GTE MA70 is capable of propelling itself 0-60 mph in 6.2 seconds with 6.8 psi of boost. It reached the 1/4 mile in 14.7 seconds at a speed of 95 mph. Its top speed is 149 mph.

Turbo AEdit

Main article: Toyota Supra Turbo-A

In 1987, the Turbo-A model was introduced as a 1988 model. It was a special design aimed at winning the Group-A touring car championships around the world. There were only 500 Turbo-As ever made. The Turbo-A was a special 7M-GTE with 267  PS (263 hp/196 kW), making it the fastest Japanese road car until the Nissan Skyline R32-GTR was introduced in 1989. The Turbo-A model was only produced in black, featured a grey leather interior, a larger intercooler, and used speed/density (MAP + IAT sensor) air metering. In addition, it was a hardtop model and featured a larger compressor wheel on the CT-26(A) turbocharger and throttle body.


Quick InfoEdit

Mark III Quick information by Chassis code
Code Year Engine Power Torque Transmission Market
MA70 1986.5-1992 3.0 L (2954 cc) 7M-GE I6 200 hp (149 kW) 196 ft·lbf (265 N·m) 5-speed W58 manual
4-speed A340E automatic
CAN EUR USA
3.0 L (2954 cc) 7M-GTE turbo I6 232 hp (173 kW) 240 ft·lbf (325 N·m) 5-speed R154 manual
4-speed A340E automatic
CAN EUR JPN
MA71 1987-1992 3.0 L (2954 cc) 7M-GTE turbo I6 232 hp (173 kW) 240 ft·lbf (325 N·m) 5-speed R154 manual
4-speed A340E automatic
USA
GA70 1986.5-1992 2.0 L (1988 cc) 1G-GTE turbo I6 185-210 hp (138-157 kW) 173-203 ft·lbf (234-275 N·m) 5-speed W58 manual
4-speed A340E automatic
JPN
JZA70 1986.5-1992 2.5 L (2491 cc) 1JZ-GTE turbo I6 280-300 hp (206-221 kW) 268-272 ft·lbf (363-368 N·m) 5-speed R154 manual
4-speed A340E automatic
JPN

GalleryEdit

Mark IV (1993-2002)Edit

800px-'93-'95 Toyota Supra

Toyota Supra MK IV
Toyota
aka Mk. IV
Production 1993 - 2002
Class Mid-sized Sports
Body Style 2 dr 2+2 Coupe
Length 177.7 in (4513.6 mm)
Width 71.3 in (1811.0 mm)
Height 50.2 in (1275.1 mm)
Wheelbase 100.4 in (2550.2 mm)
Weight non-turbo: 3210 lb (1460 kg) turbo: ~3400 lb (1542.2 kg)
Transmission 5-speed W58 manual
6-speed V16x manual
4-Speed A341E automatic
Engine 3.0 L (2997 cc) 2JZ-GE I6
3.0 L (2997 cc) 2JZ-GTE I6
Power 221 bhp @ 6000 rpm
29.00kgf.m @ 4800 rpm
Similar Mitsubishi GTO
Platform JZA8x
Fuel Economy 18 MPG city
23 MPG highway[8]
Fuel Capacity 18.5  U.S. GAL (70.0 L)[8]
Assembly Motomachi, Japan[9]
Designer

With the fourth generation of the Supra, Toyota took a big leap in the direction of a more powerful sports car. The new Supra was completely redesigned, with rounded body styling partly based on the Ferrari F40 and featured two new engines: naturally aspirated 2JZ-GE 220 hp (164 kW) and 210 ft·lbf (285 N·m) of torque and a twin turbocharged 2JZ-GTE making 276 bhp (239 kW), 315 ft·lbf (427 N·m) of torque. The Turbo was actually quoted to have 320 bhp, as the cars in the Japan market can only declare up to 276. The turbocharged variant could achieve 0–60 mph in as low as 4.6 seconds and 1/4 mile (402 m) in 13.1 seconds at 109 mph [8]. The engine is capable of producing around 400hp with the stock twin turbos and mild bolt-on upgrades such as a boost controller and high-flow exhaust. The turbo version was tested to reach over 289 kph (180 mph) all-stock, but the cars are restricted to just 180 kph in Japan and 250 elsewhere. European versions also had a hood scoop.

The MKIV Supra's twin turbos operated in sequential mode instead of the more common parallel mode. The sequential setup featured a pair of small, equally sized turbos, with ceramic blades for the domestic Japanese market and steel blades for export (USA, Europe) markets. At first, all of the exhaust is routed to the first turbine for reduced lag. This resulted in boost and enhanced torque as early as 1800 rpm. Approaching 4000 rpm, the exhaust is routed to the second turbine for a "pre-boost" mode, although none of the compressor output is used by the engine at this point. Approaching 4500 rpm, the second turbo's output is added to the intake air, and both turbos operate in parallel. Most cars which are advertised as "twin turbo" operate by having the two equally sized turbos constantly running in parallel; the turbos spool up at the same time. The sequential mode provides greater low-end response at the expense of increased complexity and cost.

For this generation, the Supra received a new 6-speed Getrag transmission on the Turbo models while the naturally aspirated models made do with a 5-speed manual. Both models were offered with a 4-speed automatic with a manumatic mode. However, the turbo model used larger 4-piston brake calipers on the front and 2-piston calipers for the rear. The base model used smaller 2-piston calipers for the front and a single piston caliper for the rear. The turbo models were fitted with 235/45/17 tires on the front and 255/40/17 tires for the rear. The base model used 225/50/16 for the front and 245/50/16 for the rears. All vehicles were equipped with 5-spoke aluminium alloy wheels and a "donut" spare tire on a steel wheel. Additionally, there are other differences in the rear axle differential, headlight assemblies, throttle body, oil cooler and a myriad of additional sensors that exist on the turbo model which doesn't exist on the normally aspirated model.

Toyota took measures to reduce the weight of the current model compared to the previous model. The Supra featured hollow carpet fibers. Aluminium was used for the hood, targa top (if so equipped), front crossmember, oil pan, and the suspension upper A-arms. Other measures included dished out head bolts, magnesium steering wheel, plastic gas tank and lid, gas injected rear spoiler, and a large single exhaust tip. Despite having more features such as dual airbags, traction control, larger brakes, larger wheels, and larger tires, the car was at least 100-200 lbs lighter than its predecessor.

For the 1996 model year, the turbo model was only available with the automatic transmission due to OBD2 certification requirements. The targa roof was made standard on all turbo models. For 1997, the manual transmission is back for the optional engine along with a redesign of the tail lights, front fascia, chromed wheels, and other minor changes such as the radio and steering wheel designs. All 1997 models included badges that said, "Limited Edition 15th Anniversary." For 1998, the radio and steering wheel were redesigned once again. The naturally aspirated engine was enhanced with VVTI which raised the output by 5 hp and 10 ft·lbf of torque. The turbo model was not available in California, New York, and Massachusetts due to increased emission regulations.

MKIV Supras have been modified (larger turbos running 30+ psi (206 kPa) of boost and other, undisclosed tweaks) to produce over 1453bhp (1084 kW), as measured at the tires, and cover the 1/4 mile (402 m) in 7.9 seconds. The stock 2JZ-GTE stock engine components are astonishingly rugged, capable of withstanding power outputs of over 1000 bhp (~850rwhp dynojet / ~730rwhp dyno dynamics) without having to update any internal components, putting its capabilities in this regard, somewhat above Nissans legendary RB26 series engine. The stock MKIV Supra chassis has also proven a very effective platform for roadracing, with (for example) several top 20 and top 10 One Lap Of America finishes in the SSGT1 class. The major deficiencies with this platform for road racing include heat management and weight due to the 2JZ iron block. The Supra is one of the heaviest 2-door Japanese sports cars, however still slightly lighter than the Nissan R33 and R34 Skyline GTRs to which the Supra is traditionally a rival in its home country.

The MKIV has become one of the most popular import platforms for modification. This trend has largely been driven by the strength of the stock parts. Untouched motors have been shown to withstand power levels in excess of 3 times what the stock motor is rated at. For less than USD$1000 the owner can increase the power output from 320 crank horsepower (stock) to around 500 crank horsepower. The car has also been hyped and glamourised in several major motion pictures, to a widely mixed reception depending mostly on the age of audience. In the drag racing circuit, Supras and other 2JZ-powered cars have been running very competitively against domestics with two or three times the displacement. The 2JZ has been recognized as one of the most capable import engines, and the engine design has altered very little since the 2JZ was released in 1992.

In 1998, Toyota ceased to import the cars to the U.S. from Japan, although the car was last sold in Canada in 1995. They stopped production of the car altogether in August 2002 due to new emission standards coming into effect in 2003.

GalleryEdit

Mark VEdit

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Toyota Supra MK V
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aka Mk. V
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Throughout the past couple of years, major print and online auto publications have hinted at a possible revival of the Supra in 2007/2008, pointing the car in different directions. The vehicle was originally thought to be the flagship or halo model in the Toyota lineup, be powered by a high output V8, and have an estimated cost anywhere between $50,000 and $70,000. Other rumors hint at a V10 F1-inspired powerplant, like the current BMW M5 and M6, though current F1 engines have been downgraded to V8s. Power is likely 450 bhp or more, as this was likely due to the increasing number of sighting of a high performance sports car being tested throughout Europe and, more specifically, on the Nürburgring. These vehicles turned out to be the test mules for Lexus' future Lexus LF-A.[10]

After this was discovered, it was then believed that that if a new Supra were to be released, it will be positioned to compete directly against the Nissan Skyline. It was expected to be available as a coupe and convertible, have a V6 producing around 350+ hp, and cost between $25,000 and $35,000. Throughout recent years, different publications as well as fans of the Supra have created several renditions of what a new Supra might look like if it were ever to be produced.

Topspeed.com was among a number of publications that claimed that there will be a return of the Supra in 2008 [11] but Toyota disclaimed this rumor on August 15, 2006. The same numerous publications that originally speculated on a future Supra all stated no new vehicle was being developed. According to an AutoWeek article on current and upcoming Toyota vehicles, all rumors on the Supra's return are false.[12] Automotive News also claim Toyota has absolutely no plans for a Supra in the future.[13]

" All the rumors of the two-passenger sports car's return are false." - Automotive News[13]

The Toyota FT-HS (Future Toyota-Hybrid Sport),[14] set to debut at the 2007 North American International Auto Show, was stated to be a concept for a vehicle that could fill the gap in Toyota's line-up left by the Supra.[15]

GalleryEdit


Appearances in Video Games Edit

  • Gran Turismo features the turbo MA70 and JZA70 Mark III Supra, both the naturally aspirated and turbo Mark IV Toyota Supra, and the Castrol GT Supra.[16]
  • Gran Turismo 2 includes the same cars as the first one along with multiple race versions.[17]
  • Gran Turismo 3: A-Spec features both variants of the MK IV Toyota Supra along with multiple race versions of the car. [18]
  • Gran Turismo 4 features the Celica XX and it shares the same Supras as the original Gran Turismo; along with more race versions.[19]
  • Forza Motorsport includes the MKIII Supra (turbo only) and the MKIV Supra
  • The original The Need for Speed includes the MKIV Supra.
  • Need For Speed: Underground and Need For Speed: Underground 2 features the Toyota Supra and it can be both driven and modified.
  • Need For Speed: Most Wanted features the Toyota Supra. One of the Blacklist rivals drives a MKIV Toyota Supra.
  • Need For Speed: Carbon features the Supra as a tier 3 car in the tuner class.
  • Midnight Club 3: DUB Edition and Midnight Club 3: DUB Edition Remix also features the Toyota Supra, which it is a C-Class car, yet it can run up to 200 MP/H once heavily upgraded.
  • Project Gotham Racing 2 features the Toyota Supra and it can be purchased.
  • Grand Theft Auto San Andreas features a likeness of the MKIV Supra, the "Jester". It is rarely seen.
  • Street Racing Syndicate features a Celica and Mark IV version of the Supra, rear wheel drive.
  • Import Tuner Challenge features the Mark III and Mark IV version of the Supra, both being capable of a triple turbo motor swap with misfiring kits. Also features the Mark III and Mark IV Supras with realistic tuning, steering-wheel views and bodykits.
  • Wangan Midnight Maximum Tune features the Mark III and IV versions of the Supra.
  • Shutokou Battle (Tokyo Xtreme Racer) features MA70,JZA70,JZA80

AwardsEdit

United States TimelineEdit

  • 1979 - Celica Supra MK I introduced with 2.6 L (2563 cc) SOHC 4M-E I6 engine.
  • 1981 - MK I engine displacement upped to 2.8 L (2759 cc) with SOHC 5M-E I6 engine.
  • 1982 - MK II Celica Supra introduced with a 2.8 L (2759 cc) DOHC 5M-GE I6 engine.
  • 1986 - 1986.5 MK III Supra introduced on its own platform with 3.0 L (2954 cc) DOHC 7M-GE I6 engine.
  • 1987 - Option of turbocharger to 3.0 L (2954 cc) DOHC 7M-GTE engine that produces 230 hp (172 kW) 245 ft·lbf (332 N·m).
  • 1989 - Restyled. Turbo power increase to 234 hp (174 kW) 250 ft·lbf (339 N·m).
  • 1993 - 1993.5 MK IV Supra introduced with 3.0 L (2997 cc) turbo (2JZ-GTE) or non-turbo (2JZ-GE) DOHC engine.
  • 1996 - Turbo only available with Automatic transmission due to OBD2 certification requirements. Targa roof standard on all Turbo models.
  • 1997 - Manual transmission available on turbo models. Restyled. All 1997 labeled as 15th Anniversary model. Japanese production stopped in September.
  • 1998 - Slight restyling of interior. VVT-i on non-turbo models which increased power. Turbos not available in states that require New York emissions.
  • 1999 - Export of MK IV Toyota Supra halted in the U.S., production in Japan continues.
  • 2002 - Production of MK IV Toyota Supra halts.

See AlsoEdit

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ReferencesEdit


  • 1980 Toyota Celica Supra Sales Bruchure PDF
  • 1981 Toyota Celica Supra Sales Brochure PDF
  • 1982 Toyota Celica Supra Sales Brochure PDF
  • 1983 Toyota Celica Supra Sales Brochure PDF
  • 1984 Toyota Celica Supra Sales Brochure PDF
  • 1985 Toyota Celica Supra Sales Brochure PDF

External linksEdit


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