- Not to be confused with the Hyundai Pony car.
Pony car is an American class of automobile launched and inspired by the Ford Mustang in 1964. The term describes an affordable, compact, highly styled car with a sporty or performance-oriented image. "It was small by Detroit standards, with sporty styling... [a]nd the rear wheels were driven by an engine — ideally a big V8 — mounted up front..." Pony cars were "relatively small, relatively light and often absurdly powerful."
Origins of the breedEdit
The pony car had its beginnings at Ford Motor Company in the late 1950s following the demise of the original, two-seat Ford Thunderbird. While the Thunderbird's transformation into a larger, four-seat personal luxury car, starting with the 1958 model year, proved to be successful in sales terms, dealers and buyers alike lamented the loss of the two-seat Thunderbird, which served as a halo car (image leader) for the company and a traffic-builder in showrooms, attracting buyers who would ultimately purchase more mundane automobiles. For several years Ford explored various plans for reviving some equivalent of the early Thunderbird.
An added impetus came from Chevrolet, with the popularity of the Chevrolet Corvair introduced in 1960. The sporty Monza version of the Corvair was the catalyst that "all pony cars can thank Chevrolet for their existence." The initial Corvair had been positioned as an economy car, but it was much more successful with the plusher trim and sportier image of the Monza model that included bucket seats and a floor-mounted transmission shifter, which sold around 144,000 units by 1961—starting a trend toward sportier cars with bucket-seats in all sizes from compacts to full-size cars. Ford responded to the compact Corvair Monza with sportier Futura and Futura Sprint versions of its Ford Falcon, and Chrysler with the Plymouth Valiant Signet and Dodge Dart GT, as well as American Motors (AMC) with the 440-H and Rogue versions of the Rambler American, and Studebaker with the sporty Daytona version of its compact Lark. Other sporty bucket-seat compact cars that appeared during the early 1960s included the Mercury Comet S-22, Oldsmobile F-85 Cutlass, Buick Special Skylark, and Pontiac Tempest LeMans. Most of these sporty compacts came standard with the same economical six-cylinder engines as their more mundane counterparts, but in some cases more powerful V8 engines were at least optional along with four-speed manual transmissions and center consoles housed between the front bucket seats.
Some technical developments of the early sporty compact cars offered in the U.S. (1961–63) included a turbocharged six-cylinder in the rear-engine Corvair Monza Spyder/Corsa (1962–66), turbocharged aluminium V8 on the 1962–63 Oldsmobile Cutlass Jetfire and a standard 194 cu in (3.2 L) four-cylinder engine mated to a rear transaxle on the 1961–63 Pontiac Tempest LeMans in several states of tune, including a four-barrel high-performance option, as well as (in 1963) a large (for a compact car) 326 cu in (5.3 L) V8 that was optional with up to 280 hp (209 kW).
Although the sporty compacts were a commercial success for most automakers, some auto executives, however, principally Ford's Lee Iacocca, believed that sporty versions of mundane compact cars only scratched the surface of the potential market. During this period there was a strong influx of young buyers with discretionary income and a taste for vehicles with a younger image than a standard sedan, and Iacocca's marketing studies revealed that if a unique-looking sporty car could be offered at an affordable price, it would find many buyers. Ford's response to this demand was the Mustang, launched on April 17, 1964, which proved to be an enormous success. The company was forecasting sales for the first year to reach 100,000 units. However, Ford dealers took 22,000 orders the first day and the company had to shift production mid-year. The extended model year sales totaled 618,812 Mustangs.
Defining the classEdit
The 1964 Mustang provided the template for the new class of automobiles. The term itself "was coined by Dennis Shattuck, who was editor of Car Life magazine" at the time. The term "originates from the equestrian sounding Ford Mustang".
Although the Mustang was based on the platform of the Falcon, it had a unique body (offered as a hardtop coupé and a convertible) with distinctive, "long hood, short deck" proportions. In basic form it was mechanically mundane, with a 170 cu in (2.8 L) six-cylinder engine coupled to a three-speed manual transmission. It carried an attractive base price of US$2,368 that included bucket seats, carpeting, floor shifter, sport steering wheel, and full wheel covers. The Mustang also had an extensive option list offering a range of V8 engines, Cruise-O-Matic automatic transmission or four-speed manual gearbox, radios, air conditioning, power steering, and other accessories. A V8 Mustang with all available options would cost about 60% more than a basic model with a six-cylinder engine, which made it an extremely profitable model for Ford.
- Stylish and sporty styling that included "long hoods, short decks and open mouths"
- Assembled from "off-the-shelf" mass production components
- Affordable base price (under $2,500 — in 1965 dollar value)
- Wide range of options to individualize each car
- Youth-oriented[marketing and advertising.
While most of the pony cars offered more powerful engines and performance packages, enough to qualify some into muscle car territory, a substantial number were sold with six-cylinder engines or ordinary V8s. For the most part, the high-performance models saw limited sales and were largely limited to drag racing, road racing, or racing homologation purposes.
Pony car competitorsEdit
Despite the immediate success of the Mustang, many (including some within Ford) feared that the bubble would soon burst, and other manufacturers were relatively slow to respond. The first competitor was the Plymouth Barracuda, which actually went on sale on April 1, 1964, about two weeks before the Mustang. The Barracuda was not a direct response to the Mustang, which had not yet debuted (although Chrysler was certainly aware of the upcoming model), but a low-cost way to expand the sporty appeal of the Valiant. Chrysler's precarious financial situation meant that the Barracuda was compromised, with insufficient distinction from the Valiant and styling that drew mixed reactions; its sales were a fraction of the Mustang's. It has been described that if the Barracuda was successful, as well as the similar fastback Rambler Tarpon introduced as planned before the Mustang, the term for this class of automobile might have been "fish car," rather than "pony car." However, the Mustang, unlike the Barracuda, featured a completely unique body style from the car on which it was based (the Ford Falcon), making it the first true pony car.
Initially, General Motors believed that the restyled 1965 Corvair would be an adequate challenger for the Mustang, but when it became clear that the Corvair itself was doomed, the more conventional Chevrolet Camaro was introduced, going on sale for the 1967 model year, at the time the Mustang received its first major redesign. They were presently joined by the Camaro-based Pontiac Firebird, the Mercury Cougar. "By 1967 the market was filled with pony cars ... however the 1968 AMC Javelin was not the last pony car to hit the showrooms—it was Dodge's 1970 Challenger", an enlarged version of the Barracuda.
The pony car classification was applied to all versions of these nameplates, from the base economy models, as well as models with more equipment, features, or the "muscle" performance models. The intention of these performance models and factory support in racing was on developing a competitive marketing image for their pony cars. The automaker's marketing department's strategy was to promote a perception of these as "sports-type" muscle and performance to promote sales. The competition between the manufacturers was so fierce that the Trans-Am Series from 1966 to 1972 is described as "The Pony Car Wars".
While sales were strong throughout the end of the 1960s, the greater value of the pony cars was in bringing buyers, particularly the crucial youth market, into the fold. In 1970 Car and Driver reported that while very few pony car drivers bought a second pony car, around 50% moved on to purchase another car of the same make. Nevertheless, even by 1969 sales were beginning to slide, dropping to 9% of the total market, from a peak of 13% in 1967.
The pony car was primarily an American phenomenon, but in 1969, with the continuing growth in this market segment Ford managers decided to introduce a European equivalent in the Ford Capri. Sharing most of its underpinnings and some engines with an ordinary model, (the Ford Cortina), it had a combination of style and image very much in the spirit of the Mustang. The European Ford Capri (sold in the U.S. as a Mercury Capri through 1978 at Lincoln-Mercury dealerships) was last imported for the 1978 model year, and the nameplate was placed on a rebadged Fox-body Mustang through 1987.
The following is a list of muscle cars and their manufacturers (along with the pony car of the same company):
Expansion and declineEdit
As with most automobile redesigns, each subsequent generation of the pony cars grew somewhat larger, heavier, costlier, and more plush. Big-block engines joined the option list, and both performance and comfort options proliferated.The 1973 Mustang, for example, was 8.5 inches (216 mm) longer, 5.9 inches (150 mm) wider, and over 600 pounds (272 kg) heavier than the original edition. The Dodge Challenger, meanwhile, was only slightly smaller and lighter than Dodge's intermediate cars. The added bulk left the standard six and V8 engines sorely pressed, while the introduction of powerful big-blocks underscored the limitations of the pony cars' suspension, brakes, and tires.
By 1970 buyers were moving away from the pony cars, either toward smaller compact cars (domestic or imported) or toward larger, more luxurious models. Performance of the hottest pony cars began to erode as a result of emissions controls and the added weight of required safety features. The 1973 oil crisis left the bulky pony cars out of step with the marketplace.
The Challenger, Barracuda, and Javelin were cancelled after 1974, and the Camaro and Firebird nearly died at the same time, although they received last-minute stays of execution. The Cougar became an upscale personal luxury twin to the Ford Thunderbird, while the Mustang was reinvented as a luxury compact based on the Ford Pinto.
Despite mediocre performance, fueled by promotional appearances by the Firebird Trans Am in popular movies such as Smokey and the Bandit, and TV programs such as The Rockford Files and Knight Rider, the GM pony cars experienced resurgence in popularity in the late 1970s that helped ensure their continuation. The Mustang was redesigned with a renewed sporty image in 1979, prompting Mercury to reenter the pony car market with a Mercury Capri twin based on the new Mustang. Chrysler, beset by financial problems, did not revive the pony car, although it did offer other front-wheel drive performance models with a similar spirit. American Motors brought back its AMX model name to the performance-oriented I6 or V8 powered rear-drive Spirit, a similar car to the Mustang hatchback of that era.
Sales of the Mustang remained strong, although in the 1980s Ford gave serious consideration to replacing it with a front-drive model (which eventually appeared as the Ford Probe instead). Emissions and fuel economy concerns led many of the latter-day pony cars to offer four-cylinder engines (sometimes with turbocharging), although they were never as popular as six-cylinder and V8 models.
By the mid 1980s, the pony car survivors (Mustang, Camaro, and Firebird) enjoyed a period of renewed popularity as progressively more and more powerful (yet relatively fuel-efficient) V8 engines were offered in performance-oriented versions of these vehicles. However, declining sales and the growing popularity of rear wheel drive light trucks and sport utility vehicles ultimately led to the demise of the Camaro and Firebird after the 2002 model year.
21st Century revivalEdit
The dilemma facing automakers in offering pony cars (or their spiritual equivalent) going forward is developing a suitable platform that is affordable and capable enough to be viable. Unlike the mid-1960s, the large majority of modern compact cars are front-wheel drive, with four- and six-cylinder engines, and the widespread use of monocoque construction makes engineering a specialized body an expensive proposition.
In 2005, Ford introduced a new Mustang based on a dedicated platform. The success of this model inspired Dodge to reintroduce the Challenger in 2008, and Chevrolet to reintroduce the Camaro for 2010, although the latter two differ from classic pony cars in being based on full-size car architectures.
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 Mitchell, Larry G. (2000). AMC Muscle Cars. MotorBooks/MBI Publishing Company. p. 17. http://books.google.com/books?id=JHVaQFDrx_MC&pg=PA1959&dq=create+a+new+American+class+of+cars+called+%22pony+cars%22.
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Grist, Peter (2009). Dodge Challenger Plymouth Barracuda: Chrysler's Potent Pony Cars. Veloce Publishing. p. 6. http://books.google.com/books?id=o4wNh7QuIr4C&pg=PT6&dq=pony+car+originates+from+equestrian&ei=4rNgS8CrKZTcNvu0mOMI&client=safari&cd=1#v=onepage&q=pony%20car%20originates%20from%20equestrian&f=false. Retrieved 2010-01-27.
- ↑ Borroz, Tony "April 17, 1964: Ford Mustang Starts Galloping" Wired 2009-04-17, retrieved on 2009-06-18.
- ↑ Squatriglia, Chuk "Mustang, the Ultimate Pony Car, Turns 45" Wired 2009-04-17, retrieved on 2009-06-16.
- ↑ Engelman, Emily "Ford to Increase Mustang Production to Meet Runaway Consumer Demand" Ford Press Resease, March 18, 2005. Retrieved on February 1, 2009.
- ↑ Gunnell, John A. (2001). Mustang, America's Favorite Pony Car. Krause Publications.
- ↑ Bowling, Brad (2005). Mustang Field Guide: America's Favorite Pony Car. Krause Publications.
- ↑ The Motor (Temple Press Ltd.) 166. 1984. http://books.google.com/books?q=Pony+Cars+term%2C+incidentally+was+coined&btnG=Search+Books. Retrieved 2009-12-13.
- ↑ "1965 Mustang Options" by the Auto Editors of Consumer Guide, 2007-02-04, retrieved on 2009-12-13.
- ↑ "The 1965 Ford Mustang" by the Auto Editors of Consumer Guide, 2007-02-04, retrieved on 2009-12-13.
- ↑ Gartman, David (1994). Auto opium: a social history of American automobile design. Taylor & Francis, Inc. p. 197.
- ↑ 12.0 12.1 Gunnell, John; Heasley, Jerry (2006). The Story of Camaro. Krause Publications. p. 16. http://books.google.com/books?id=Jp9atOdc2aAC&pg=PA20&dq=Camaro+%22Pony+car%22&ei=aNM2S_2yBJj2ygS7u6TnDg&client=safari&cd=5#v=onepage&q=Camaro%20%22Pony%20car%22&f=false.
- ↑ "Introduction" Muscle Car Club definitions These new "pony cars" and compact cars are generally considered muscle cars only if they have the top of the line performance engines and options. undated, retrieved on February 1, 2009.
- ↑ Plymouth 'Cuda History 1964-1974, retrieved on November 10, 2007.
- ↑ "The Plymouth Barracuda: First Pony (Fish?) Car" by Doug Zwick with material by Allpar and by Lanny Knutson, not dated, retrieved on 2008-01-30.
- ↑ "1964-1966 Barracuda" not dated, retrieved on 2008-01-30.
- ↑ Mitchell, Larry G. (2000). AMC Muscle Cars. MotorBooks/MBI Publishing Company. p. 33. http://books.google.com/books?id=JHVaQFDrx_MC&pg=RA1-PA1951&dq=By+1967+the+market+was+filled+with+pony+cars.
- ↑ Leffingwell, Randy; Holmstrom, Darwin; Newhardt, David title = Muscle: America's Legendary Performance Cars (2006). MotorBooks/MBI Publishing. p. 16. http://books.google.com/books?id=0SG1yOw4edUC&pg=PA5&dq=%22The+Pony+Wars%22&ei=n9g2S5jqPIykyATayvm1AQ&client=safari&cd=2#v=onepage&q=%22The%20Pony%20Wars%22&f=false.
- ↑ Holder, William; Kunz, Phil (2006). Extreme Muscle Cars. Krause Publications. p. 14.
- ↑ Friedman, Dave (2001). Trans-Am: The Pony Car Wars 1966-1972. MotorBooks/MBI Publishing Company.
- ↑ Lewis, Albert L.; Musciano, Walter A. (1977). Automobiles of the world. Simon & Schuster. p. 608.
- ↑ Mike Solowiow (2009-03-09). "Review: 2010 Hyundai Genesis Coupe 3.8 (Grand Touring)". The Truth About Cars. http://www.thetruthaboutcars.com/review-2010-hyundai-genesis-coupe-38-grand-touring/. Retrieved 2009-09-18.
- ↑ John Phillips (2009-06). "2010 Camaro V6 vs. Genesis Coupe V6 - Comparison Tests". Car And Driver. http://www.caranddriver.com/reviews/comparisons/09q2/2010_camaro_v6_vs._genesis_coupe_v6-comparison_tests. Retrieved 2009-11-19.