In automotive engineering, an intake manifold or inlet manifold is the part of an engine that supplies the fuel/air mixture to the cylinders. An exhaust manifold or header collects the exhaust gases from multiple cylinders into one pipe. The word manifold comes from the Old English word manigfeald (from the Anglo-Saxon manig [many] and feald [fold]) and refers to the folding together of multiple inputs and outputs.
The primary function of the intake manifold is to evenly distribute the combustion mixture (or just air in a direct injection engine) to each intake port in the cylinder head(s). Even distribution is important to optimize the efficiency and performance of the engine. It may also serve as a mount for the carburetor, throttle body, fuel injectors and other components of the engine.
Due to the downward movement of the pistons and the restriction caused by the throttle valve, in a reciprocating spark ignition piston engine, a partial vacuum (lower than atmospheric pressure) exists in the intake manifold. This manifold vacuum can be substantial, and can be used as a source of automobile ancillary power to drive auxiliary systems: power assisted brakes, emission control devices, cruise control, ignition advance, windshield wipers, power windows, ventilation system valves, etc.
This vacuum can also be used to draw any piston blow-by gases from the engine's crankcase. This is known as a closed crankcase ventilation or positive crankcase ventilation (PCV) system. This way the gases are burned with the fuel/air mixture.
The intake manifold has historically been manufactured from aluminum or cast iron but use of composite plastic materials is gaining popularity (e.g. most Chrysler 4 cylinders, Ford Zetec 2.0, Duratec 2.0 and 2.3, and GM's Ecotec series).
The carburetor or the fuel injectors spray fuel droplets into the air in the manifold. Due to electrostatic forces some of the fuel will form into pools along the walls of the manifold, or may converge into larger droplets in the air. Both actions are undesirable because they create inconsistencies in the air-fuel ratio. Turbulence in the intake causes forces of uneven proportions in varying vectors to be applied to the fuel, aiding in atomization. Better atomization allows for a more complete burn of all the fuel and helps reduce engine knock by enlarging the flame front. To achieve this turbulence it is a common practice to leave the surfaces of the intake and intake ports in the cylinder head rough and unpolished.
Only a certain degree of turbulence is useful in the intake. Once the fuel is sufficiently atomized additional turbulence causes unneeded pressure drops and a drop in engine performance.
- See also: Cylinder head porting
The design and orientation of the intake manifold is a major factor in the volumetric efficiency of an engine. Abrupt contour changes provoke pressure drops, resulting in less air (and/or fuel) entering the combustion chamber; high-performance manifolds have smooth contours and gradual transitions between adjacent segments.
Modern intake manifolds usually employ runners, individual tubes extending to each intake port on the cylinder head which emanate from a central volume or "plenum" beneath the carburetor. The purpose of the runner is to take advantage of the Helmholtz resonance property of air. Air flows at considerable speed through the open valve. When the valve closes, the air that has not yet entered the valve still has a lot of momentum and compresses against the valve, creating a pocket of high pressure. This high-pressure air begins to equalize with lower-pressure air in the manifold. Due to the air's inertia, the equalization will tend to oscillate: At first the air in the runner will be at a lower pressure than the manifold. The air in the manifold then tries to equalize back into the runner, and the oscillation repeats. This process occurs at the speed of sound, and in most manifold travels up and down the runner many times before the valve opens again.
The smaller the cross-sectional area of the runner, the higher the pressure changes on resonance for a given airflow. This aspect of Helmholtz resonance reproduces one result of the Venturi effect. When the piston accelerates downwards, the pressure at the output of the intake runner is reduced. This low pressure pulse runs to the input end, where it is converted into an over-pressure pulse. This pulse travels back through the runner and rams air through the valve. The valve then closes.
To harness the full power of the Helmholtz resonance effect, the opening of the intake valve must be timed correctly, otherwise the pulse could have a negative effect. This poses a very difficult problem for engines, since valve timing is dynamic and based on engine speed, whereas the pulse timing is static and dependent on the length of the intake runner and the speed of sound. The traditional solution has been to tune the length of the intake runner for a specific engine speed where maximum performance is desired. However, modern technology has given rise to a number of solutions involving electronically-controlled valve timing (for example Valvetronic), and dynamic intake geometry (see below).
As a result of "resonance tuning", some naturally-aspirated intake systems operate at a volumetric efficiency above 100%: the air pressure in the combustion chamber before the compression stroke is greater than the atmospheric pressure. In combination with this intake manifold design feature, the exhaust manifold design, as well as the exhaust valve opening time can be so calibrated as to achieve greater evacuation of the cylinder. The exhaust manifolds achieve a vacuum in the cylinder just before the piston reaches top dead center. The opening inlet valve can then—at typical compression ratios—fill 10% of the cylinder before beginning downward travel. Instead of achieving higher pressure in the cylinder, the inlet valve can stay open after the piston reaches bottom dead center while the air still flows in.
In some engines the intake runners are straight for minimal resistance. In most engines, however, the runners have curves...and some very convoluted to achieve desired runner length. These turns allow for a more compact manifold, with denser packaging of the whole engine, as a result. Also, these "snaked" runners are needed for some variable length/ split runner designs, and allow the size of the plenum to be reduced. In an engine with at least six cylinders the averaged intake flow is nearly constant and the plenum volume can be smaller. To avoid standing waves within the plenum it is made as compact as possible. The intake runners each use a smaller part of the plenum surface than the inlet, which supplies air to the plenum, for aerodynamic reasons. Each runner is placed to have nearly the same distance to the main inlet. Runners, whose cylinders fire close after each other, are not placed as neighbors.
"180 degree intake manifolds"....Originally designed for carbureted V8 engines, the two plane, split plenum intake manifold separates the intake pulses which the manifold experiences by 180 degrees in the firing order. This minimizes interference of one cylinder's pressure waves with those of another. Such manifolds may be designed for either two or four barrel carburetors.
"Heat Riser"....now obsolete, earlier manifolds ...with 'wet runners' for carbureted engines...used exhaust gas diversion through the intake manifold to provide vaporizing heat. The amount of exhaust gas flow diversion was controlled by a heat riser valve in the exhaust manifold, and employed a bi-metallic spring which changed tension according to the heat in the manifold. Today's fuel injected engines do not require such devices.
Variable length intake manifoldEdit
- Main article: Variable length intake manifold
Variable Length Intake Manifold (VLIM) is an internal combustion engine manifold technology. Four common implementations exist. First, two discrete intake runners with different length are employed, and a butterfly valve can close the short path. Second the intake runners can be bent around a common plenum, and a sliding valve separates them from the plenum with a variable length. Straight high-speed runners can receive plugs, which contain small long runner extensions. The plenum of a 6 or 8 cylinder engine can be parted into halves, with the even firing cylinders in one half and the odd firing cylinders in the other part. Both sub-plenums and the air intake are connected to an Y (sort of main plenum). The air oscillates between both sub-plenums, with a large pressure oscillation there, but a constant pressure at the main plenum. Each runner from a sub plenum to the main plenum can be changed in length. For V engines this can be implemented by parting a single large plenum at high engine speed by means of sliding valves into it when speed is reduced.
There are two main effects of variable intake geometry:
- Venturi effect - At low rpm, the speed of the airflow is increased by directing the air through a path with limited capacity (cross-sectional area). The larger path opens when the load increases so that a greater amount of air can enter the chamber. In dual overhead cam (DOHC) designs, the air paths are often connected to separate intake valves so the shorter path can be excluded by deactivating the intake valve itself.
- Pressurization - A tuned intake path can have a light pressurizing effect similar to a low-pressure supercharger due to Helmholtz resonance. However, this effect occurs only over a narrow engine speed range which is directly influenced by intake length. A variable intake can create two or more pressurized "hot spots." When the intake air speed is higher, the dynamic pressure pushing the air (and/or mixture) inside the engine is increased. The dynamic pressure is proportional to the square of the inlet air speed, so by making the passage narrower or longer the speed/dynamic pressure is increased.
Many automobile manufacturers use similar technology with different names. Another common term for this technology is Variable Resonance Induction System (VRIS).
- Audi - 2.8-liter V6 gas engine (1991–98); 3.6 and 4.2 liter V8 engines, 1987–present
- Alfa Romeo - 2.0 TwinSpark 16v - 155 ps(114 kW)
- BMW DISA and DIVA systems
- Dodge - 2.0 A588 - ECH (2001–2005) used in the 2001-2005 model year Dodge Neon R/T
- Ferrari - 360 Modena, 550 Maranello
- Ford VIS (Variable-resonance Intake System) - on their 2.9 liter 24V Cosworth (BOB) based on the Ford Cologne V6 engine in the later model Ford Scorpio.
- Ford DSI (Dual-Stage Intake) - on their Duratec 2.5 and 3.0 liter V6s and it was also found on the Yamaha V6 in the Taurus SHO.
- Ford - The Ford Modular V8 engines sport either the Intake Manifold Runner Control (IMRC) for 4V engines, or the Charge Motion Control Valve (CMCV) for 3V engines.
- Ford - The 2.0L Split Port engine in the Ford Escort and Mercury Tracer feature an Intake Manifold Runner Control variable geometry intake manifold.
- General Motors - 3.9L LZ8/LZ9 V6, 3.2L LA3 V6
- GM Daewoo - DOHC versions of E-TEC II engines
- Holden - Alloytec
- Honda - Integra, Legend, NSX, Prelude
- Hyundai - XG V6
- Isuzu - Isuzu Rodeo Used in the second generation V6, 3.2L (6VD1) Rodeos.
- Jaguar - AJ-V6
- Lancia VIS
- Mazda VICS (Variable Inertia Charging System) is used on the Mazda FE-DOHC engine and Mazda B engine family of straight-4s, and VRIS (Variable Resistance Induction System) in the Mazda K engine family of V6 engines. An updated version of this technology is employed on the new Mazda Z engine, which is also used by Ford as the Duratec.
- Mitsubishi Cyclone is used on the 2.0L I4 4G63 engine family.
- Nissan I4, V6, V8
- Opel (or Vauxhall) TwinPort - modern versions of Ecotec Family 1 and Ecotec Family 0 straight-4 engines; a similar technology is used in 3.2 L 54° V6 engine
- Peugeot 2.2 L I4, 3.0 L V6
- Porsche VarioRam - 964, 993, 996, Boxster
- Proton Campro CPS and VIM - Proton Gen-2 CPS and Proton Waja CPS; Proton Campro IAFM - 2008 Proton Saga 1.3
- Renault - Clio 2.0RS
- Toyota T-VIS - (Toyota Variable Induction System) used in the early versions of the 3S-GE, 7M-GE, and 4A-GE engines, and ACIS - (Acoustic Control Induction System).
- Volkswagen - 1.6 L I4, VR6, W8
- Volvo - VVIS (Volvo Variable Induction System) Volvo B52 engine as found on the Volvo 850 and S70/V70 vehicles, and their successors. Longer inlet ducts used between 1500 and 4100 rpm at 80% load or higher.
Exhaust manifolds are generally simple cast iron or stainless steel units which collect engine exhaust from multiple cylinders and deliver it to the exhaust pipe. For many engines, after market high performance exhaust headers — also known as extractors — are available. These consist of individual exhaust headpipes for each cylinder, which then usually converge into one tube called a collector. Headers that do not have collectors are called zoomie headers, and are used exclusively on race cars.
The most common types of aftermarket headers are made of either ceramic, or stainless steel. Ceramic headers are lighter in weight than stainless steel, however, under extreme temperatures they can crack - something stainless steel is not prone to.
Another form of modification used is to insulate a standard or aftermarket manifold. This decreases the amount of heat given off into the engine bay, therefore reducing the intake manifold temperature. There a few types of thermal insulation but three are particularly common:
- Ceramic paint is sprayed or brushed onto the manifold and then cured in an oven. These are usually thin, so have little insulatory properties however reduce engine bay heating by lessening the heat output via radiation.
- A ceramic mixture is bonded to the manifold via thermal spraying to give a tough ceramic coating with very good thermal insulation. This is often used on performance production cars and track-only racers.
- Exhaust wrap is wrapped completely around the manifold. Although this is cheap and fairly simple, it can lead to premature degradation of the manifold.
The goal of performance exhaust headers is mainly to decrease flow resistance (back pressure), and to increase the volumetric efficiency of an engine, resulting in a gain in power output. The processes occurring can be explained by the gas laws, specifically the ideal gas law and the combined gas law.
When an engine starts its exhaust stroke, the piston moves up the cylinder bore, decreasing the total chamber volume. When the exhaust valve opens, the high pressure exhaust gas escapes into the exhaust manifold or header, creating an exhaust pulse comprising three main parts: The high-pressure head is created by the large pressure difference between the exhaust in the combustion chamber and the atmospheric pressure outside of the exhaust system. As the exhaust gases equalize between the combustion chamber and the atmosphere, the difference in pressure decreases and the exhaust velocity decreases. This forms the medium-pressure body component of the exhaust pulse. The remaining exhaust gas forms the low-pressure tail component. This tail component may initially match ambient atmospheric pressure, but the momentum of the high- and medium- pressure components reduces the pressure in the combustion chamber to a lower-than-atmospheric level. This relatively low pressure helps to extract all the combustion products from the cylinder and induct the intake charge during the overlap period when both intake and exhaust valves are partially open. The effect is known as scavenging. Length, cross-sectional area, and shaping of the exhaust ports and pipeworks influences the degree of scavenging effect, and the engine speed range over which scavenging occurs.
The magnitude of the exhaust scavenging effect is a direct function of the velocity of the high and medium pressure components of the exhaust pulse. Performance headers work to increase the exhaust velocity as much as possible. One technique is tuned-length primary tubes. This technique attempts to time the occurrence of each exhaust pulse, to occur one after the other in succession while still in the exhaust system. The lower pressure tail of an exhaust pulse then serves to create a greater pressure difference between the high pressure head of the next exhaust pulse, thus increasing the velocity of that exhaust pulse. In V6 and V8 engines where there is more than one exhaust bank, Y-pipes and X-pipes work on the same principle of using the low pressure component of an exhaust pulse to increase the velocity of the next exhaust pulse.
Great care must be used when selecting the length and diameter of the primary tubes. Tubes that are too large will cause the exhaust gas to expand and slow down, decreasing the scavenging effect. Tubes that are too small will create exhaust flow resistance which the engine must work to expel the exhaust gas from the chamber, reducing power and leaving exhaust in the chamber to dilute the incoming intake charge. Since engines produce more exhaust gas at higher speeds, the header(s) are tuned to a particular engine speed range according to the intended application. Typically, wide primary tubes offer the best gains in power and torque at higher engine speeds, while narrow tubes offer the best gains at lower speeds.
Many headers are also resonance tuned, to utilize the low-pressure reflected wave rarefaction pulse which can help scavenging the combustion chamber during valve overlap. This pulse is created in all exhaust systems each time a change in density occurs, such as when exhaust merges into the collector. For clarification, the rarefaction pulse is the technical term for the same process that was described above in the "head, body, tail" description. By tuning the length of the primary tubes, usually by means of resonance tuning, the rarefaction pulse can be timed to coincide with the exact moment valve overlap occurs. Typically, long primary tubes resonate at a lower engine speed than short primary tubes.
Some modern exhaust headers are available with a ceramic coating. This coating serves to prohibit rust and to reduce the amount of heat radiated into the engine bay. The heat reduction will help prevent intake manifold heat soak, which will decrease the temperature of the air entering the engine.
Dynamic exhaust geometryEdit
Today's understanding of exhaust systems and fluid dynamics has given rise to a number of mechanical improvements. One such improvement can be seen in the exhaust ultimate power valve ("EXUP") fitted to some Yamaha motorcycles. It constantly adjusts the back pressure within the collector of the exhaust system to enhance pressure wave formation as a function of engine speed. This ensures good low to mid-range performance.
At low engine speeds the wave pressure within the pipe network is low. A full oscillation of the Helmholtz resonance occurs before the exhaust valve is closed, and to increase low-speed torque, large amplitude exhaust pressure waves are artificially induced. This is achieved by partial closing of an internal valve within the exhaust — the EXUP valve — at the point where the four primary pipes from the cylinders join. This junction point essentially behaves as an artificial atmosphere, hence the alteration of the pressure at this point controls the behavior of reflected waves at this sudden increase in area discontinuity. Closing the valve increases the local pressure, thus inducing the formation of larger amplitude negative reflected expansion waves. This enhances low speed torque up to a speed at which the loss due to increased back pressure outweighs the EXUP tuning effect. At higher speeds the EXUP valve is fully opened and the exhaust is allowed to flow freely.
| Piston engine configurations|
|Type|| Bourke • Controlled combustion • Deltic •Orbital • Piston • Pistonless (Wankel) •|
Radial • Rotary • Single • Split cycle • Stelzer • Tschudi
|Inline types||H · U · Square four · VR · Opposed · X|
|Stroke cycles||Two-stroke cycle • Four-stroke cycle • Six-stroke cycle|
|Straight||Single · 2 · 3 · 4 · 5 · 6 · 8 · 10 · 12 · 14|
|Flat||2 · 4 · 6 · 8 · 10 · 12 · 16|
|V||4 · 5 · 6 · 8 · 10 · 12 · 16 · 20 · 24|
|W||8 · 12 · 16 · 18|
|Valves|| Cylinder head porting • Corliss • Slide • Manifold • Multi • Piston • Poppet •|
Sleeve • Rotary valve • Variable valve timing • Camless
|Mechanisms|| Cam • Connecting rod • Crank • Crank substitute • Crankshaft •|
Scotch Yoke • Swashplate • Rhombic drive
|Linkages||Evans • Peaucellier–Lipkin • Sector straight-line • Watt's (parallel)|
|Other||Hemi • Recuperator • Turbo-compounding|
- France's Corp Exhaust Header Page
- Kinematic Models for Design Digital Library (KMODDL) - Movies and photos of hundreds of working mechanical-systems models at Cornell University. Also includes an e-book library of classic texts on mechanical design and engineering.
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