The Fábrica Nacional de Motores (National Motor Factory), FNM, popularly known as FeNeMê was a Brazilian company designed to produce aircraft engines, but has expanded its operations to manufacture trucks and automobiles, for which activity has become more prominent.
The idea of creating the Fábrica Nacional de Motores emerged in 1939, during the period of Brazilian history called the Estado Novo. It was the government of President Getúlio Vargas, who wanted to turn Brazil into a savings industrializada. Date this time the foundation of state enterprises such as Companhia Siderúrgica Nacional (1941), Companhia Vale do Rio Doce (1942),Companhia Nacional de Álcalis (1943),Companhia Hidrelétrica do São Francisco (1945) and others.
In that spirit, the Colonel Antônio Guedes Muniz proposed the construction of a factory aero engine would respond to military aviation and rising domestic production of aircraft for civilian use.
Muniz went to the States and signed a deal to produce radial engines Curtiss-Wright R-975. The money came when Brazil entered the Second World War, as part of the agreements signed with the U.S.. Thus, in 1942, founded the Fábrica Nacional de Motores. The construction Xerém (district of Duque de Caxias, at the foot of the Sierra de Petrópolis) ran during the war. They were huge and modern facilities.
When he left the first powered airplane FNM in 1946, the war had ended and the U.S. burned their military surplus. Only FAB Wright had 180 engines imported stock.
Vargas was deposed and interest in the industrialization of Brazil had cooled. The new president, Eurico Gaspar Dutra, ordered to suspend production engines. To save the FNM, Muniz (now elevated to Brigadier) set from the factory to make parts for home appliances to industrial machinery. In 1947, the state had listed shares.
Only in 1949 is that Xerém found its way: thanks to an agreement with the Italian Isotta Fraschini, the FNM was the first company to manufacture trucks in Brazil. Debuted with the D-7300, a model with diesel engine and capacity of 7.5 tons of cargo. Some 200 trucks of this type came to be made, but the Isotta was in bad financial situation in Europe and stopped sending pieces.
The solution was to find another supplier of technology: the Intalian Alfa Romeo state. And the model was "flat face" FNM D-9500 that the line Xerém was reactivated in 1951.
The nationalization of FNM (now called by the people "Fenemê") increased. In 1958, it launched the 11,000-D model, also derived from the Italian Alfa. It was the heavy truck and become legendary in brazilian roads, with its gist gross and unmistakable sound of the diesel engine six-cylinder, all-aluminum.
In 1960, the FNM released in the production of a luxury sedan, the FNM JK-2000. Was the most stable and fast automobile manufactured in Brazil at the time, but also the most expensive. With the military coup, the new government made a intervention and, in 1968, the old partner Alfa Romeo took control of the FNM, which continued to make cars, trucks and bus chassis.
In 1972 came a new heavyweight truck, FNM 180. His mechanics was basically the old D-11 000, but the cabin was more modern. In the same line, was created FNM 210.
The car range has also undergone an evolution: after 2000, was launched in 2150 and, in March 1974, it launched the Alfa Romeo 2300, a model manufactured exclusively in Brazil.
The operation Xerém, however, never gave great profit. In 1977 the factory was sold to Fiat - which continued to make the model 180 for two years and closed the doors of the pioneer FNM. Throughout all phases, the company produced about 15,000 vehicles.
Nostalgic travel through the BR-116Edit
Between January and February 2011, trucks FNM left Curitiba and São Paulo for a nostalgic trip to Salvador. The convoy consisted of three D-11000 (a model 1961 with Brasinca booth, a mechanical horse 1964 and one of 1965). On board were passionate about old trucks, they wanted to relive the days when Fenemês dominated the scene of the BR-116. Among roundtrip. 110km were over ten days.
Fundação Museu da Tecnologia de São Paulo - História da indústria e tecnologia aeronáuticas  (In Portuguese)