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Drifting

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File:Drifting1.JPG
Drift diagram

A diagram of how a drift works

Drifting refers either to a driving technique utilizing a difference in slip angle between the front and rear tires of a car, or to a sport based on the technique; this article deals primarily with the sport. When the rear wheels are slipping at a greater angle than the front wheels, the car is drifting, or "power-sliding". The rear end of the car appears to chase the front end around a turn, the driver utilizes both front tires and the rear tires to control the actual direction of the car. More throttle induces more rear wheel slip angle and the rear of the car wants to overtake the front. The goal is for the driver to achieve opposite lock and use the throttle to fine tune the car's angle and direction.

HistoryEdit

For decades people have intentionally used oversteer in many levels of motorsports. Some motorsports, such as dirt track racing, motorcycle speedway, rallying, and other forms of motorsports on low-grip surfaces have taken advantage of oversteer. Early Grand Prix drivers such as Tazio Nuvolari also used an at the limit form of driving called the four-wheel drift[1]. It has also featured prominently in stunt driving and other forms of exhibition.

Modern drifting started out as a racing technique popular in the All Japan Touring Car Championship races over 30 years ago. A motorcycling legend turned driver, Kunimitsu Takahashi, was the foremost creator of drifting techniques in the 1970's. He was famous for hitting the apex (the point where the car is closest to the inside of a turn) at high speed and then drifting through the corner, preserving a high exit speed. This earned him several championships and a legion of fans who enjoyed the spectacle of burning tires.

The relatively low grip of even the best racing tires of the 1960s and 1970s lent themselves to driving styles with a high slip angle. As professional racers in Japan drove this way, so did the street racers.

A street racer named Keiichi Tsuchiya became particularly interested by Takahashi's drift techniques. Tsuchiya began practicing his drifting skills on the mountain roads of Japan, and quickly gained a reputation amongst the racing crowd. In 1977, several popular car magazines and tuning garages agreed to produce a video of Tsuchiya's drifting skills. The video became a hit and inspired many of the professional drifting drivers on the circuits today. In 1988, alongside Option magazine founder Daijiro Inada, he would help to organise one of the first events specifically for drifting.

Drifting outside Japan "officially" began in 1996 with an event at Willow Springs racetrack in California hosted by the magazine Option. It has since exploded into a massively popular form of motorsport in North America, Europe, and Australia.

TodayEdit

Nowadays, drifting has evolved into a competitive sport where drivers compete in rear-wheel drive cars to keep their cars sideways as long as possible. At the top levels of competition, especially the D1 Grand Prix from Japan and others in Malaysia, Australia, the Republic of Ireland, the United Kingdom, and the United States, drivers are able to keep their cars sliding for extended periods of time, often through several turns.

Drift CompetitionEdit

Drifting competitions are judged based not on the time it takes to complete a course, but on line, angle, speed, and show factor. Line involves taking the correct line, which is usually announced beforehand by judges. Angle is the angle of a car in a drift, the more the better. Speed is the speed entering a turn, the speed through a turn, and the speed exiting the turn; faster is better. The show factor is based on multiple things, such as the amount of smoke, how close the car is from the wall, and the crowd's reaction. It is based on how "cool" everything looks.

File:Team Drift.jpg

To make judging less ambiguous, the DriftBox has been introduced to D1GP, it uses GPS/accelerometers to measure the angle, speed and g-force during a run. This takes the guesswork out of judging the angle and speed of the drift.

The judging takes place on just a small part of the circuit, a few linking corners that provide good viewing, and opportunities for drifting. The rest of the circuit is irrelevant, except as it pertains to setting up the car for the first judged corner. In the tandem passes, the lead driver often feints his or her entry to the first corner to upset the chase driver.

There are typically two sessions, a qualifying/practice session, and a final session. In the qualifying sessions, referred as Tansou (chase run), drifters get individual passes in front of judges (who may or may not be the final judges) to try and make the final 16. This is often on the day preceding the final.

The finals are tandem passes, referred as Tsuiso (chase attack). Drivers are paired off, and each heat comprises two passes, with each driver taking a turn to lead. The best of the 8 heats go to the next 4, to the next 2, to the final. The passes are judged as above with some provisos.

  • Overtaking the lead car under drift conditions almost always wins that pass.
  • Overtaking the lead car under grip conditions automatically forfeits that pass.
  • Spinning forfeits that pass, unless the other driver also spins.
  • Increasing the lead under drift conditions helps to win that pass.
  • Maintaining a close gap while chasing under drift conditions helps to win that pass.

Points are awarded for each pass, and usually one driver prevails. Sometimes the judges cannot agree, or cannot decide, or the crowd violently disagrees with the judge's decision. In such cases more passes may be run until a winner is produced. Sometimes mechanical failure determines the battle's outcome, either during or preceding a heat. If a car cannot enter a tandem battle, the remaining entrant (who automatically advances) will give a solo demonstration pass.

There is some regional variation, for example in Australia, the chase car is judged on how accurately it mimics the drift of the lead car, as opposed to being judged on its own merit.

CarsEdit

In theory, any car will do. In practice, certain models crop up again and again, For example, one tends to See More Silvia S13/14s, than one would see Classic Mini Coopers. The top 15 cars in the 2003 D1GP were: [1]

  • 6 x S15 Silvia
  • 3 x AE86 Trueno/Levin
  • 2 x FD3S RX7
  • 2 x S13 Silvia
  • 1 x ER34 Skyline
  • 1 x JSX100 Chaser

Top 10 cars in 2004 D1GP: [2]

  • 5 x S15 Silvia
  • 3 x AE86 Trueno/Levin
  • 1 x ER34 Skyline
  • 1 x FD3S RX7

Top 10 cars in 2005 D1GP: [3]

  • 3 x S15 Silvia
  • 2 x AE86 Trueno/Levin
  • 2 x FD3S RX7
  • 1 x GD Impreza (RWD)
  • 1 x ER34 Skyline
  • 1 x SXE10 Altezza

The popular cars seen around the world reflect the local flavors and what is commonly available, but center around light to moderate weight, rear-wheel-drive passenger cars with an emphasis on good handling. Japanese cars are often preferred, due to the sport's Japanese origins, but are not necessarily at an advantage. In Japan and worldwide, the most common drift machines are the Nissan Silvia/180SX, Nissan Skyline(RWD versions), Nissan Cefiro (RWD versions), Nissan Laurel, Nissan Fairlady Z, Toyota AE86, Toyota Altezza, Toyota Soarer, Honda S2000, and Mazda RX-7. US drift competitions will feature the local versions of all those cars (such as the Nissan 240SX and Toyota Corolla GT-S) as well as American performance cars such as the Ford Mustang, Dodge Viper and Pontiac GTO. Drifters in other parts of the world often adapt their own local favorites, such as the early Ford Escort (UK, Ireland and Australia), BMW 3 Series (other parts of Europe), or Volvo 700 series (Sweden).

There is some debate over whether or not front wheel drive (FWD) vehicles can drift. By one definition, the rear wheels slipping at a greater angle than the front wheels, they are indeed able to drift. However, most consider FWD vehicles a poor choice for drifting, as the frequent use of the emergency brake slows them down and makes them harder to control for Unskilled drivers, or Drivers Unused to FWD Cars. Also, since they use their front tires for both steering and power, the car loses control after a single slide, while RWD cars can drift through consecutive corners. In this way, the definition of drifting is frequently challenged to say that FWD cars cannot "drift," only oversteer.

AWD vehicles, such as the Subaru Impreza WRX STi, and Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution drift at a much different angle and are usually induced by power-over. As the front wheels are also driven on an AWD vehicle there is a noticeable lack of counter steer. D1 and other professional competitions do not allow AWD vehicles. However, vehicles such as the Impreza and the Lancer can be converted to only use the rear wheels to become a RWD car that can compete in drift competitions that prohibit AWD cars.

Drifting techniquesEdit

The basic driving techniques used in drifting are constant, though each car and driver will employ some subset of these techniques. They include:

  • Hand-brake or Emergency brake drift - The hand-brake is pulled to induce rear traction loss. This is generally the most common technique used to perform a controlled drift in a FWD vehicle by inexperienced drivers. Also, this technique is used heavily in drift competitions to drift large corners.
  • Power oversteer or Powerslide - This drift is performed when entering a corner at full throttle to produce heavy oversteer through the turn. The excess power causes the drive wheels to lose traction in a RWD or AWD car. This is the most typical drifting technique for all-wheel drive cars.
  • Lift off, Lift throttle, or Taking In[4] - By closing the accelerator while cornering at very high speeds, cars with relatively neutral handling will begin to slide, simply from the weight transfer resulting from engine braking. The drift is controlled afterwards by steering inputs from the driver and light pedal work, similar to the Braking drift.
  • Shift lock - Initiated by downshifting (usually from third to second or fourth to third, and using a very fast shift) instead of braking, without rev-matching, causing the drive wheels to lock momentarily. Helpful for very tight corners, allowing the driver to approach the corner at a slower speed and lower revs, while allowing quick acceleration when exiting the corner. This technique can be very damaging to the engine if mis-used as the ECU is unable to rev limit when the engine is oversped by the rear wheels. Premature downshifters are called "Rod Stretchers". [5]
  • Braking Drift - This drift is performed by braking into a corner, so that the car can transfer weight to the front. This immediately followed by throttle in a RWD car causes the rear wheels to lose traction.
  • Clutch kick - This is done by "kicking" the clutch (pushing in, then out, usually more than one time in a drift for adjustment in a very fast manner) to send a shock through the powertrain, upsetting the car's balance. This causes the rear wheels to slip.
  • Inertia (Feint) drift - This is done by transfering the weight of car towards the outside of a turn by first turning away from the turn and then quickly turning back using the inertia of the rear of the car to swing into to the desired drifting line. Sometimes the hand-brake will be applied while transfering the weight of the car towards the outside to lock the rear wheels and help the rear swing outwards.
  • Dirt drop - This is done by dropping the rear tires off the road to maintain or gain drift angle. Only permissible when there is dirt or foliage near the edge of or to the side of the track.

Drift TuningEdit

Drive TrainEdit

A proper mechanical limited slip differential (LSD) is essential for drifting. Open diffs and viscous diffs cannot be controlled during a sustained slide. All other modifications are secondary to the LSD.[6] Popular drift LSDs include OS Giken[7], KAAZ[8], & Cusco[9].

The most popular form of limited slip differential for drifting is the clutch type, in "2-way" form; this is preferred for its consistent and aggressive lockup behavior under all conditions (acceleration and deceleration). Some drift cars will employ a spool "differential", which actually has no differential action at all, the wheels are locked to each other. Budget drifters also use the welded differential, where the side gears are welded to give the same effect. This makes the car very easy to slide at high speed, but difficult to park, and is hard on the driveline. Torsen (available on cars such as S15, FD3S, MX5, JZA8x) and Cone (some Borg Warner) type diffs are adequate, but not generally available aftermarket.

The clutches on drift cars tend to be very tough ceramic brass button or multiple-plate varieties, for durability, as well as to allow rapid "clutch kick" techniques to upset the balance of the car. Gearbox and engine mounts are often replaced with urethane mounts, and dampers added, to control the violent motion of the engine/gearbox under these conditions.

SuspensionEdit

The suspension in a drift car tends to have very high spring and damper rates. Sway bars are upgraded, particularly on the rear. Caster is often increased to improve the car's controllability during a slide. Most cars use an integrated coilover/shock (MacPherson strut) combination. This type of suspension allows the ride height to be adjusted independently of the suspension travel. There is no perfect height setting or spring/shock combo for any car, but each driver will have their own personal preference. Many suspension manufacturers offer suspension tuned specifically for drifting, allowing many people to enter the sport competitively.

Bushings can be upgraded with urethane parts. Most Nissan vehicles have a floating rear subframe which is usually fixed in position with billet aluminium or urethane "drift pineapples", to prevent the frame moving during drift.

One suspension tuning method, still popular in Japan, is known as "Demon Camber" (Japanese: 鬼カム, Oni-kamu). It involves setting the suspension with extreme negative camber in the front to reduce slide. Negative camber on the rear would only induce understeer, making the car more difficult to drift. The front of the car having better grip and less tendency to slide, it is easier to swing the rear of the car around to get a good drift angle. However stability, grip, and overall ability to control the car are compromised. It has thus fallen out of favor as a serious performance-minded suspension setup. However, many cars built for show (such as those driven by bōsōzoku) still use this style of suspension setup for its aggressive look. A few degrees of toe-out on the rear wheels in some vehicles (leading edges angled outward) can improve turn-in, and make setting up a drift a little easier.

Tire wear is generally not a concern for professional drivers. However if you are modifying a street-driven car to drift on the weekends, it is important to remember that aggressive suspension angles can destroy your tires on the street in very little time.

CockpitEdit

Because of the large sideways forces, the driver must be retained firmly by a bucket seat, and preferably five point harness. This allows the hands to merely turn the wheel, as opposed to bracing oneself against the wheel. The steering wheel should be relatively small, dished, and perfectly round, so that it can be released and allowed to spin through the hands as the castor returns the front wheels to centre. The locking knob on the hand brake is usually replaced with a spin turn knob, this stops the hand brake locking on when pulled. Some drivers move the hand brake location or add an extra hydraulic hand brake actuator for greater braking force.

EngineEdit

Engine power does not need to be high, and in fact if a car has too much power, it can be very hard to handle during a drift. Each driver has their own preference, and drift cars can be found with anything from 100bhp (74kW) to 1000bhp (745kW). Typically, engine tuning is oriented towards achieving linear response rather than maximum power output. Engines also must be equipped with upgraded cooling systems. Not only are the engines pushed very hard, creating lots of heat, but being driven at an angle reduces the airflow through the radiator. For turbocharged engines, intercooler efficiency is similarly reduced. Oil coolers are almost essential. V-mount intercooler/radiators improve flow through these components, and keep the expensive intercooler out of harm's way in the inevitable offs.

SteeringEdit

With increased steering angle it is possible to achieve greater angle with the vehicle, it will also aid in spin recovery. This is often done with spacers on the steering rack, custom steering racks, custom tierod ends, or machining the spindles. Increased steering angle often requires other modifications as at some point the tire or wheel will come in contact with other suspension pieces or the inner/outer fenders.

BodyEdit

File:Drift Carnage.jpg

Chassis preparation is similar to a road racing car. Roll cages are sometimes employed for safety, and to improve the torsional rigidity of the car's frame, but is compulsory in events that involves the 2+ cars tsuiou runs in the event of a side collision. Front and rear strut tower braces, B-pillar braces, lower arm braces, and master cylinder braces are all used to stiffen the chassis. The interior is stripped of extraneous seating, trim, carpet, sound deadening; anything that is not essential is binned to reduce weight.

Body kits are usually attached with cable ties. When the body kit meets the wall or curb, the cable ties snap, releasing the part, as opposed to breaking it.

As drift cars are pushed faster, aerodynamic tuning becomes more important as well. Rear spoilers and wings usually are useful only in large, open tracks where the cars develop enough speed to create a need for more downforce. Wheel arches are often rolled or flared to allow the fitment of larger tires. Airflow to the engine is critical, so the bonnet is often vented.

TiresEdit

The cars quite often have different tires on the front and back, and the owner may have quite a few sets. This is because a single afternoon of drifting can destroy a new set of tires. As a rule, good tires go on the front for good steering. On the back, hard-compound tires are used, quite often second-hand ones tend to end up in a cloud of smoke. 15" wheels are common on the rear, as 15" tires are cheap. As a driver gets better, they will most likely want to upgrade the tires used in the rear for a higher grip compound. Although cheap/hard tires are fun purely for their slipperiness and ease of drifting, they quickly become a hazard for high-speed drifts. More advanced drivers require the most grip possible from all 4 tires. Competitive drifters often run DOT approved tires closer to racing tires. The grip is required for control, speed, and a fast snap on the initial entry. Some companies have started to create tires with special effects for drifting. One such company is Kumho. They recently released tires designed especially for the drifting crowd. These new tires produce colored smoke instead of regular grey smoke when drifted. However these tires are generally not available to the public, and only to drift racing teams at the moment.

Drifting in popular cultureEdit

Many videogames and simulations include the physics necessary to simulate drifting.]] Because of the showy, spectator-friendly nature of drifting, it has received some exposure in mainstream culture both in Japan and the rest of the world.

  • The manga series Initial D by Shuichi Shigeno, later adapted to an anime and a live-action film, is often many peoples' first exposure to the sport of drifting.
  • Another manga series Over Rev! by Katsumi Yamaguchi is another comic that features drifting, but is not as well known in America as Initial D, as it has not yet been exported in any other language than Japanese.
  • The third film in the The Fast and the Furious series, Tokyo Drift, is set in a romanticized version of Japan's drift culture.
  • Drifting and Touge driving are featured in the third, fifth and final installment of the Shuto Kousoku Trial series.
  • Drifting is also frequently used to add excitement to automotive advertising. One dramatic example was used in a Japanese commercial for the Isuzu Gemini.[10]
  • Drift events have been covered by major TV sports networks worldwide, as well as through a regular program on US-based cable TV network G4techTV.
  • Many racing video games such as Daytona USA, OutRun 2 and especially Ridge Racer require drifting to perform well in the game.
  • The racing game series Kaido Battle involves drifting contests and night-time drift duels on mountain roads.
  • In the Need For Speed Underground series, players must compete in Drift events to meet game requirements to pass levels.
  • The presenters of British TV program Top Gear are known to enjoy powersliding cars on their test track. In the final episode of series 6 Richard Hammond tested the Vauxhall Monaro VX-R and was taught how to drift in the same car by D1 Grand Prix driver Yasuyuki Kazama in the last episode of Season 6. Despite being unable to speak English, Kazama was able to teach Hammond by using hand signals. Kazama then took the VX-R and showed Hammond how to drift properly.[11]
  • Best Motoring International frequently features drifting events with Keiichi Tsuchiya (nicknamed the Drift King). BMI also released the Drift Bible, a well-known reference DVD explaining drifting in a step-by-step fashion.
  • In The Dukes Of Hazzard, the General Lee is often seen drifting along Hazzard county's roads, among other stunts.
  • In the movie Cars (2006), the main character, Lightning McQueen, learns how to drift himself through a corner on a dirt surface, which in the end allows him to win the final race.

List of drifting championships all over the worldEdit

Includes the country of origin and year of inauguration.

  • D1 Grand Prix - Japan, 2000-
  • Formula Drift Australia 2002-
  • U.S.Drift - United States, 2002-
  • Autoglym Drift Championship (formerly UKD1) - UK, 2002-2005; replaced by the D1GB series
  • Drift Nationals Championship - Australia, 2003-
  • D1NZ - New Zealand, 2003-
  • Formula D - United States, 2004-
  • D1 Grand Prix - Malaysia 2006-
  • Super Drift Championship - Australia, 2006-
  • Drift Australia Championship - Australia, 2006-
  • Drift Fest - United States, 2006-
  • D1GB National Series - Great Britain, 2006-
  • R3 Street Shoot-Out - Malaysia
  • Advan Drift Meeting - Japan
  • A'pex Cup - Japan
  • ORC Drift Championship - Japan
  • BN Sports D1 Drift Championship - Japan
  • IDA [NSW Championship] - Australia
  • Eurodrift Series - UK & Europe
  • Prodrift (formerly D1 IRL) - Eire
  • DM1(DriftMania)-Canada

ReferencesEdit

  1. Ellis, Ben et al (2004). Drift Battle 1. Express Motoring Publications. pp. 24. 
  2. Ellis, Ben et al (2004). Drift Battle 4. Express Motoring Publications. pp. 22. 
  3. Ellis, Ben et al (2005). Drift Battle 12. Express Motoring Publications. pp. 77. 
  4. The Technique of Motor Racing by Piero Taruffi
  5. Smith, Carroll (1996). Carroll Smith's Drive To Win. Carroll Smith Consulting Inc.. pp. ch.2 p.42. 
  6. Ellis, Ben et al (2004). Drift Battle 1. Express Motoring Publications. pp. 53-56. 
  7. OS Giken - retrieved 2006-06-02
  8. KAAZ - retrieved 2006-06-02
  9. Cusco - retrieved 2006-06-02
  10. Isuzu Gemini "Dancing in Paris" commercial
  11. Top Gear Season 6, Episode 11 August 7th, 2005

See alsoEdit

Template:AutomotiveHandlingNav

External linksEdit

Sanctioning BodiesEdit

CoverageEdit

  • DriftLive.com - Real Time Coverage of Formula D and D1GP in the United States
  • EverythingDrift.com - Coverage and Editorial of everything drift in the US and Internationally

Edit

  • GRIP Video - An International DVD Series which also produces Drift Society DVD's
  • [2] - Japanese Drift Site of some sort

Online CommunitiesEdit

VideoEdit

  • drift.us Downloadable drifting videos from around the world

PhotoEdit

Safety ResourcesEdit

  • DriftSafe.org Resources on becoming a safe drifting fan or driver

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