Deep rolling is a method of cold work deformation and burnishing of internal combustion engine crankshaft journal fillets to increase durability and design safety factors. Compressive residual stresses can be measured below the surface of a deep rolled fillet. Other types of fillets on shafts or tubes can benefit from this method too. Typically the crankshaft is machined with under-cut fillets as opposed to tangential radiused for ease of manufacture, although all types can be deep rolled. Most automakers are currently utilizing this technology including: GM, Ford, and Chrysler engines. Hegenscheidt-MFD Corporation, the French SPMS SUPRAMATIC brand, and ICM (teamed with Lonero Tooling) are the only major machine/tooling manufacturers of this application in Europe and North America, supplying a highly specialised product throughout the global manufacturing sectors.