|aka|| Citroën ID|
|Class||Mid-size luxury car / Executive car|
|Body Style|| 2-door convertible|
4-door station wagon
|Similar|| Mercedes-Benz 220SEb|
The Citroën DS (also known as Déesse, or Goddess, after the punning initials in French) was an automobile produced by the French manufacturer Citroën between 1955 and 1975. Citroën sold nearly 1.5 million D-series during its 20 years of production.The DS is well-known for its futuristic, aerodynamic body design, and for its innovative technology (including its hydropneumatic self-leveling suspension system).
The DS advanced the achievable standards in terms of ride quality, roadholding, handling, and braking in an automobile. Automotive journalists of the time often noted that competitors took decades to adapt to the higher standards it set. The smooth, aerodynamic body lines gave the car a futuristic appearance. While it looked very unusual in 1955, public tastes appear to have caught up with the DS in the post-Ford Taurus/Audi 100 era.
After 18 years of development in secret as the successor to the venerable Traction Avant, the DS 19 was introduced on October 5, 1955 at the Paris Motor Show. The car's appearance and innovative engineering captured the imagination of the public and the automobile industry almost overnight. 743 orders were taken in the first 15 minutes of the show, and orders for the first day totalled 12,000. 
Far from being just a fascinating technology in search of a purpose, contemporary journalists were effusive in noting how the DS dramatically pushed the envelope in the ride vs. handling compromise possible in a motor vehicle. 
The high price tag, however, hurt general sales in a country still recovering from World War II 10 years earlier, and a submodel, the ID (another pun: in French, Idée, or Idea), was introduced in 1957 to appeal to more cost-conscious buyers. The ID shared the same body with the DS, but had more traditional features under the hood. It had no power steering (though this was added as an option later), and instead of the hydraulically controlled manual transmission and clutch, it had a conventional clutch and transmission. Interestingly, the first model series was called 11D, a clear reminder of the last model of the Traction Avant, the 11C. A station wagon variant, the ID Break, was introduced in 1958.
Throughout its model lifetime, the DS managed to remain ahead of its time. It featured power disc brakes, a hydropneumatic suspension including an automatic levelling system and variable ground clearance, power steering and a semi-automatic transmission. A fiberglass roof reduced weight transfer. Inboard front brakes (as well as an independent suspension) reduced unsprung weight. Different front and rear track widths and tire sizes reduced the understeer typical of front-engined and front-wheel drive cars.
The DS came in third in the 1999 Car of the Century competition, recognizing the the world's most influential auto designs. Winner and second place went to the Ford Model T and the Mini. It placed fifth on Automobile Magazine "100 Coolest Cars" listing in 2005.
As with all French cars, the DS design was impacted by the tax horsepower system, which effectively mandated very small engines. Unlike the Traction Avant predecessor, there was no top-of-range model with a powerful six cylinder engine. The DS was designed around an air cooled flat six based on the design of the 2 cylinder engine of the 2CV, similar to the motor in the Porsche 911, but technical issues forced this idea to be scrapped.
Thus, for such a modern car, the engine of the original DS 19 was also old-fashioned. It was derived from the engine of the 11CV Traction Avant (models 11B and 11C). It was an OHV four-cylinder engine with three main bearings and dry liners, and a bore of 78 mm and a stroke of 100 mm, giving a volumetric displacement of 1911 cc. The cylinder head had been reworked; the 11C had a reverse-flow cast iron cylinder head and generated 60 hp at 3800 rpm; by contrast, the DS 19 had an aluminium cross-flow head with hemispherical combustion chambers and generated 75 hp at 4500 rpm. Apart from these details, there was very little difference between the engines: even the locations of the cylinder head studs were the same, so that it was possible to put the cylinder head of a DS on a Traction Avant engine and run it.
Like the Traction Avant, the DS had the gearbox mounted in front of the engine, with the differential in between. Thus the DS is a really a mid engine front wheel drive car. It initially had a four-speed transmission and clutch, operated by a hydraulic controller. To change gears, the driver flicked a lever behind the steering wheel to the next position and eased-up on the accelerator pedal. The hydraulic controller disengaged the clutch, engaged the nominated gear, and re-engaged the clutch. Manual transmission control was a lower-cost option. The later and simpler ID19 also had the same gearbox and clutch, manually operated. In the 1970s a five-speed manual and 3-speed fully-automatic were introduced, in addition to the original four-speed unit.
The hydraulic system of the DS 19 was a revolution. Previously hydraulics had been restricted to use in brakes and power steering; the DS used them for the suspension, clutch and transmission. The later ID19 had manual steering and a simplified power braking system.
At a time when few passenger vehicles had caught up with the four-wheel independent suspension of the Traction Avant, the application of the hydraulic system to the car's suspension system to provide true self-levelling was a stunning move. This application - 'hydropneumatic suspension' - was pioneered the year before on the rear of the top of range Traction Avant 15CV-H.
At first it was often described as air/oil suspension, since both elements played a key role.
Each wheel was connected not to a spring, but to a hydraulic suspension unit consisting of:
- a sphere of about 12 cm in diameter containing pressurised nitrogen
- a cylinder containing hydraulic fluid screwed to the suspension sphere
- a piston inside the cylinder connected by levers to the suspension itself
- a damper valve between the piston and the sphere
A membrane in the sphere prevented the nitrogen from escaping. The motion of the wheels translated to a motion of the piston, which acted on the oil in the nitrogen cushion and provided the spring effect. The damper valve took place of the shock absorber in conventional suspensions.
The hydraulic cylinder was fed with hydraulic fluid from the main pressure reservoir via a height corrector, a valve controlled by the mid-position of the anti-roll bar connected to the axle. If the suspension was too low, the height corrector introduced high-pressure fluid. If it was too high, it released fluid back to the fluid reservoir. In this manner, it maintained a constant height. A control in the cabin allowed the driver to select one of five heights:
- normal riding height.
- two slightly higher riding heights, for poor terrain.
- two extreme positions for changing wheels.
The DS did not have a jack for lifting the car off the ground. Instead, the hydraulic system enabled wheel changes with the aid of a simple adjustable stand.
Source and reserve of pressureEdit
The central part of the hydraulic system was the high pressure reservoir, which maintained a pressure of between 130 and 150 bar in two accumulators. These accumulators were very similar in construction to the suspension spheres. One was dedicated to the brakes, and the other ran the other hydraulic systems. Thus in case of a hydraulic failure (a surprisingly infrequent occurrence), the first indication would be that the steering became heavy, followed by the gearbox not working; only later would the brakes fail.
The original hydropneumatic system used a vegetable oil (LHV or liquide hydraulique végétale) similar to that used in other cars at the time. Very soon, Citroën changed to using a synthetic fluid (LHS or liquide hydraulique synthétique). Both of these had the disadvantage that they are hygroscopic, as is the case with most brake fluids. Disuse allows water to enter the hydraulic components causing deterioration and expensive maintenance work. The difficulty with hygroscopic hydraulic fluid was exacerbated in the DS/ID due to the extreme rise and fall in the fluid level in the reservoir, which went from nearly full to nearly empty when the suspension "got up" and the 6 accumulators in the system filled with fluid. With every "inhalation" of fresh moisture- (and dust-) laden air, the fluid absorbed more water. In August 1967, Citroën introduced a new mineral oil-based fluid LHM, or liquide hydraulique minérale. This fluid was much less aggressive on the system and it remains in use to the present day.
Briefly illegal in the United States (US federal law requires motor vehicle hydraulic oil to be red - an exception had to be granted to Citroën), LHM has since been adopted by manufacturers like Rolls-Royce, Jaguar, BMW, and Audi under different labels, like "Total," "Pentosin," and others.
LHM required completely different materials for the seals. Using either fluid in the incorrect system would completely destroy the hydraulic seals very quickly. To help avoid this problem, Citroën added a bright green dye to the LHM fluid and also painted all hydraulic elements bright green. The former LHS parts were painted black.
Several different hydraulic pumps were used. The DS used a seven-cylinder axial piston pump driven off two belts and delivering 175 bar of pressure. The ID19, with its simpler hydraulic system, had a single cylinder pump.
Gearbox and clutchEdit
The gear change control consisted of:
- Hydraulic gear selector.
- Clutch control. This was the most complicated part. The speed of engagement of the clutch was controlled by:
- A centrifugal regulator, sensing engine rpm and driven off the camshaft by a belt
- The position of the butterfly valve in the carburettor (i.e. the position of the accelerator)
- The brake circuit: when the brake was pressed, the engine idle speed dropped to a rpm below the clutch engagement speed, thus preventing friction while stopped in gear at traffic lights. When the brake was released, the idle speed increased to the clutch dragging speed. The car would then "creep" much like automatic transmission cars. This drop in idle throttle position also caused the car to have more engine drag when the brakes were applied even before the car slowed to the idle speed in gear, preventing the engine from "pulling" against the brakes.
Impact on Citroën brand developmentEdit
The 1955 DS in one stroke cemented the Citroën brand name as an automotive innovator. In fact, the DS caused such a huge sensation that Citroën was fearful future models would not be bold enough. Other than variations on the Citroën 2CV, like the Citroën Ami, no new models were introduced from 1955 to 1970. Citroën thus was not involved in the largest, most profitable segment of the European market. This was similar to the position of BMW, with a huge gap between the Isetta and 507 in the 1950s.
Throughout the late 1950s and all the 1960s Citroën developed many new vehicles for the segment occupied by the Peugeot 403, Renault 16 and Ford Cortina, but none made it to production. They foundered on the twin rocks of uncompetitively high build costs, or being considered ordinary "me too" cars, not up to the company's high standard of innovation. Because Citroën was owned by Michelin as a sort of research laboratory, such experimentation was possible. Citroën finally introduced the clever Citroën GS in 1970, which sold a spectacular 2.5 million units.
Replacing the DSEdit
The DS remained popular and competitive throughout its production run. Its peak production year was 1970. Certain design elements like the somewhat narrow cabin, column mounted gear shifter, and separate fenders began to seem a little old fashioned in the 1970s.
Citroën invested enormous resources to design and launch an entirely new vehicle in 1970, the Citroën SM, which was a thoroughly modernized, slightly larger, version of the DS. While virtually no parts are interchangeable between the two cars, and the SM construction was somewhat different, without detachable rear quarter panels, the DS and SM were both assembled on the same production lines in Paris. The SM construction was quite similar to that of the DS: platform frame made up of many pieces spotwelded together, detachable front fenders similarly mounted, etc. Many SM parts were DS parts, either identical or modified, such as the front and rear suspension, most of the hydraulic brake system, the central hydraulic system, both the automatic and 5-speed transmissions, driveshafts, and many small parts. Major differences were the roof, which was welded on, the rear quarter panels, likewise welded to the innerframe, the DIRAVI steering unit, and, of course, the Maserati engine.
The SM had to fulfil another purpose beyond just upgrading the DS however - it also had to launch Citroën into a new Grand Touring market segment. This meant that unlike the DS, the SM was not designed to be a practical 4-door sedan suitable as a large family car, the key market for vehicles of this type in Europe. Typically, manufacturers would introduce low volume coupés based on parts shared with an existing sedan, not as unique models - a contemporary example being the Mercedes-Benz SLC-Class. The SM's high price, driven by the Maserati engine and limited utility of the 2+2 configuration, meant the SM as actually produced could not seize the mantle from the DS.
The DS was finally phased out in 1975 (sedan) and 1976 (station wagon) after 1,455,746 cars were produced. The DS was replaced in the model range by the smaller CX sedan.
Nations assembling the DSEdit
The majority of DS cars were built in Paris, France. They were also made in the United Kingdom, South Africa, the former Yugoslavia (mostly Break Ambulances), and Australia.
Australia constructed their own D variant in the 1960s at Heidelberg, Victoria. These are identified as the ID 19 "Parisiene." Australian market cars were all fitted with options as standard equipment like the "DSpecial DeLuxe" that were never available on domestic European models.
British built cars are distinguished by their leather seats, wooden dashboards, and Lucas made electrics.
Within some parts of the former Yugoslavia, DS sedans are still in normal use as taxis.
In addition to its French nickname, Déesse, which is a pun, sounding out the car's initials to form the word for "Goddess", the DS has also been given nicknames in several other countries.
In the former republics of Yugoslavia, it was called very differently:Žaba("the frog") in Slovenia; Ajkula ("shark") in Serbia, due to its design. It is called Tiburón (also meaning "shark") in Spain.
In Portugal it is called Boca de Sapo which means literally "Frog's Mouth", and in Poland it's nickname is Żaba, meaning "Frog".
In the Netherlands, the DS/ID is often called "Snoek", which means "Pike" (the fish).
DS in the USEdit
While the DS was a hit in Europe, it seemed rather odd in the United States. Ostensibly a luxurious car, it did not have the basic features that buyers of that era expected to find on such a vehicle - fully automatic transmission, air conditioning, power windows and a reasonably powerful engine. The DS price point was similar to the contemporary Cadillac luxury car. Also, people at the time wanted only the newest models, which changed every year, like fashion, yet the DS appeared vaguely derivative of the 1950 Hudson Hornet step-down design.
Outdated US legislation also banned one of the car's more advanced features, aerodynamic headlamps, now common in US automobiles. Ultimately, 38,000 units were sold. The first year of the aerodynamic glass over the DS' headlights along with driving lights turned by the steering, was also the first year these features were outlawed in the US.
The DS always maintained its size and shape, with easily removable, unstressed body panels, but certain design changes did occur.
A station wagon version was introduced in 1958. It was known by various names in different markets (Break in France, Safari and Familiale in the UK, Wagon in the US, and Citroën Australia used the terms Safari and Station-Wagon). It had a steel roof to support the standard roof rack.
In September 1962, the DS was restyled with a more aerodynamically efficient nose, better ventilation and other improvements. It retained the open two headlamp appearance, but was available with an optional set of driving lights mounted on the front fenders. In 1965 a luxury upgrade kit, the DS Pallas (after Greek goddess Pallas), was introduced. This included comfort features such as better noise insulation, leather upholstery and external trim embellishments.
In 1967, the DS and ID was again restyled. This version had a more streamlined headlamp design, giving the car a notably shark-like appearance. This design had four headlights under a smooth glass canopy, and the inner set swivelled with the steering wheel. This allowed the driver to see 'around' turns, especially valuable on twisting roads driven at high speed at night.
However, this feature was not allowed in the US at the time (see World Forum for Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations), so a version with four exposed headlights that did not swivel was made for the US market.
The station wagon edition, the Break (called the ID Safari on the UK market) and "Familiale", was also upgraded. The hydraulic fluid changed in all markets (except the US) to the technically superior LHM (Liquide Hydraulique Minérale).
Rarest and most collectible of all DS variants, a convertible was offered from 1958 until 1973. The convertibles were built in small series by French carrossier Henri Chapron, for the Citroën factory. In addition, Chapron also produced a few coupés, non-works convertibles and special sedans (DS Lorraine for instance).
The DS and ID powerplants evolved throughout its 20 year production life. A flat-6 based on the design of the Citroën 2CV flat-twin was originally proposed during design but abandoned due to numerous problems. The car was underpowered and faced constant mechanical changes to boost the performance of the four-cylinder engine. The initial 1911 cc 3 main bearing engine (carried forward from the Traction Avant) of the DS 19 was replaced in 1965 with the 1985 cc 5 bearing motor of the DS 19a (called DS20 from September 1969).
The DS 21 was also introduced for model year 1965. This was a 2175 cc, 5 main bearing engine. This engine received a substantial increase in power with the introduction of Bosch electronic fuel injection for 1970, making the DS one of the first mass-market cars to use electronic fuel injection.
Lastly, 1973 saw the introduction of the 2347 cc engine of the DS 23 in both carbureted and fuel injected forms. The DS 23 with electronic fuel injection was the most powerful production model, producing 141 horsepower.
IDs and their variants went through a similar evolution, generally lagging the DS by about one year. ID models never received the DS 23 engine or fuel injection. The DS was offered with a number of transmission options, including the "Hydraulique" 4-speed semi-automatic, 4-speed and 5-speed manuals and a 3-speed Borg-Warner full-automatic. The full-automatic transmissions were intended for the US market, but as Citroën withdrew from the US in 1972, the year of highest US sales, due to constrictive road rules, most automatic DSs, being the DS 23 EFI sedans with air conditioning, were sold in Australia.
DS in popular cultureEdit
The DS has been used in many film and television productions,  has inspired artists, and was associated with the French state and French society for many years.
In the post-World War II environment of the 1950s, the DS was a significant advertisement for French manufacturing and ingenuity. President Charles de Gaulle praised the unusual abilities of his unarmoured DS with saving his life during the assassination attempt at Petit-Clamart on August 22, 1962 planned by Jean-Marie Bastien-Thiry — the shots had blown two of the tires, but the car could still escape at full speed.
The Citroën DS is seen in many films and television shows, notably:
- The Day of the Jackal from 1973 features the reenactment of one of the famous moments in French history, the failed 1962 assassination attempt on Charles De Gaulle in his DS, by OAS terrorists upset about de Gaulle's Algeria policies. In the actual incident, the shots had blown two of the tires, but the car could still escape at high speed; this is a normal characteristic of DS model driving behavior.
- The DS plays a major role in the 1983 film Scarface, where the character played by Al Pacino refuses to ignite a car bomb attached to a DS traversing New York City en route to the United Nations (although the refusal is for humane reasons - Scarface did not want to kill the target's children riding with the target).
- Cold Fever (1995) is about a young Japanese man from Tokyo who travels to Iceland and ends up taking a road trip across the island in a DS.
- The Goddess of 1967 (2000), directed by Clara Law, is about a young Japanese man from Tokyo who travels to Australia to buy a 1967 DS and ends up taking a road trip across the Outback in the car.
- Fantômas – A 1964 film about a fictional French master criminal.
- Le Samourai – Alain Delon's hitman character carried a large ring of keys that enabled him to steal any DS he encountered.
- Novocaine (2001) – Steve Martin's character, Dr Frank Sangster DDS, drives a Euro-spec DS in what appears to be the current day suburbs of Chicago.
- Sam Shepard and Julie Delpy take a langourous, beautifully photographed drive from Paris to Rome in a 1960 DS, in Volker Schlöndorff's 1991 film The Voyager (Homo Faber).
- Pee-Wee's Big Adventure (1985) involves a Francophile and ends in a drive-in movie with a DS convertible.
- Wonder Boys – in the 1995 book by Michael Chabon, Sara Gaskell (the pregnant, adulterous college chancellor) drives a rare cherry-red convertible DS; in Curtis Hanson and Steve Kloves’s 2000 film adaptation the character played by Frances McDormand drives a more prosaic white 4 door sedan; the car develops directional headlights in the last scene with Michael Douglas.
- The policemen in the 1977 American TV series "CHiPs" notice a DS driving on three wheels on the highway.
- Peter Graves drives a silver 1966 DS21H Pallas in an off-road car chase in "Morocco" - American TV series Mission:Impossible
- I ♥ Huckabees – Dustin Hoffman's character drives one.
- Munich – In the 2006 Steven Spielberg film, the DS owned by the informant Louis is prominently featured.
- In Back to the Future II, the DS is used as a taxi from the distant future. It is also seen crashed on the side of the street Marty wanders down in 1985A.
- In the early seasons of Buffy the Vampire Slayer television series, Buffy's mentor Giles owns a Citroën DS. Buffy, unimpressed, says "One of these days, you're going to have to get a grown-up car". In one episode, it is crashed (presumably totalled) as they are trying to escape from evil beings.
- In the Dutch movie Zoeken naar Eileen, a DS is crashed in a tunnel.
- Invisible Waves – in Pen-Ek Ratanaruang's 2006 film, a black DS is featured prominently in the scenes shot in Phuket, Thailand.
- In Life Aquatic, as Team Zissou lands on the island to storm the Hotel Citroën, a dishevelled 1956 DS can be seen in the distance on the beach.
- Christopher Lee's villain is chauffeur-driven in a black DS in 1978's Return from Witch Mountain.
- The DS can also be seen in Crooklyn, Simone, Sliding Doors, The Green Berets, Ali, Team America: World Police, Bandits, Real Genius, Catch Me if You Can, The Odessa File, CQ, French Kiss, The Mad Adventures of Rabbi Jacob, The Protectors, Mr Jolly Lives Next Door, Jack the Bear, National Lampoon's European Vacation, Back to the Future Part II, Lord of War and The Da Vinci Code.
- Duncan MacLeod from the television series Highlander: The Series drives a DS whenever he is in France.
- In Mel Brooks' original 1968 cinema version of The Producers, a black DS delivers socialites to the premiére of Springtime for Hitler.
- A DS or ID is used to transport Vietnamese Army officials to a field camp in a flashback scene in Spy Game.
- The former prime minister of Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) Ian Smith can be seen in some old photographs leaning on the wing of an Estate version of the car shortly after the 1964 election.
- A drawing of a Citroën DS converted to a hover car can be seen in the opening credits of the TV series Eureka, about a town in the Northern United States populated by various scientific Boffins.
- A rare DS convertible is driven by the character Irene Cassini in Gattaca.
- In several episodes of the TV series Crossing Jordan, fictitious character Dr. Garret Macy is seen at the wheel of his DS.
- One episode of the TV animé Gate Keepers has the Commander character driving a DS pursued by a cyborg in a racing-modified C10 Nissan Skyline.
- A DS Safari plays a central role in the 2006 film Driving Lessons.
- A DS serves as personal transport for Ugandan dictator Idi Amin in the 2006 film The Last King of Scotland. In a key scene, the DS hits a cow, and Amin thus meets the doctor from Scotland.
- The Griswald family drives a DS from France to Germany in National Lampoon's European Vacation (1985),ultimately crushing it in an alley running from a German mob.
- In an American mystery show, The Mentalist, Patrick Jane owns a light blue DS.
The highest value so far recorded for a Citroën DS was a silver 1973 DS 23 IE 'Decapotable,' having covered only 100,000 kms, that sold for EUR €176,250 (USD $209,738) at Christie's Retromobile in February 2006. 
The DS's beloved place in French society was demonstrated in Paris on October 9 2005 with a celebration of the 50th anniversary of its launch. 1,600 DS cars drove in procession past the Arc de Triomphe. 
- "Original Citroën DS", John Reynolds, Bay View Books, 1996, ISBN 1870979710
- Road & Track magazine, USA. June, 1958
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