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12 Hours of Sebring

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The 12 Hours of Sebring is an annual motorsport endurance race for sports cars held at Sebring International Raceway, on the site of the former Hendricks Army Airfield World War II air base in Sebring, Florida. The event is the second round of the United SportsCar Championship and in the past has been a round of the now defunct World Sportscar Championship, IMSA GT Championship and American Le Mans Series. In 2012, the race was the opening event of the FIA World Endurance Championship.

The race is also a leg of the informal Triple Crown of endurance racing, which links the three largest sports car races together in a rough equivalent of Golf or Tennis' Grand Slam with the 24 Hours of Le Mans and the 24 Hours of Daytona forming the other legs.

History Edit

The track opened in 1950 on an airfield and is a road racing course styled after those used in European Grand Prix motor racing. The first race was a six-hour race on New Year's Eve 1950, with the next race held 14 months later as the first 12 Hours of Sebring.[1] The race is famous for its "once around the clock" action, starting during the day and finishing at night. From 1953 to 1972 the 12 Hour was a round of the FIA’s premier sports car series which was contested under various names including the World Sportscar Championship and the International Championship for Makes.

In its early years, the Sebring circuit combined former airport runways with narrow two-lane service roads. The 1966 event was a turning point in Sebring history, as the facilities and the safety of the circuit were heavily criticized. Five people were killed during the race, which was more people killed than in the race's prior 15-year history combined. Bob McLean crashed while approaching the hairpin; his car rolled several times, struck a utility pole and then exploded, landing in a ditch and killing McLean.

In another incident Mario Andretti in his Ferrari 365 tangled with Don Wester's Porsche 906 on the Warehouse Straight near the Webster Turns, killing four spectators and then crashing into a warehouse next to the track. Subsequent to these events, the facilities were upgraded and the circuit layout was changed, including eliminating the Webster Turns and creating the Green Park Chicane further down the track to move the straight further away from the airport warehouses. The circuit was made safer and there were no fatalities until 1980.

It is known as preparation for the 24 Hours of Le Mans, as the track's extremely bumpy surface, combined with south-central Florida's perennial hot weather, is a test of a car's reliability. In recent years, six overall victories have been achieved by the Audi R8, one fewer than the record seven wins of the Porsche 935.

Tom Kristensen has won the race more times than anyone else, with six victoriesTemplate:Spaced ndashin 19992000, 20052006, 2009 and in 2012.

Race resultsEdit

2008OverallWinner12Hoursof SebringPenskePorsche7

2008 overall winner Porsche RS Spyder.

The 1966 race had Dan Gurney leading at the last lap, when his engine of his Shelby American Ford GT40 Mk II seized near the end. Gurney pushed his car over the finish line, beaten only by Ken Miles and Lloyd Ruby. However, his actions were ultimately determined to be against the rules and he did not receive credit for his finish.[2] In 2005, the Chevrolet Corvette C6.R and Aston Martin DBR9 made their race debut in the hotly contested GT1 class, with Aston Martin winning its class for the first time in 49 years at Sebring ahead of the two Corvettes. Corvette had dominated the class the past three years with its previous generation C5R.

The all-new Audi R10 TDI won the 2006 edition of the race, the car's first ever run in competition. The victory set the stage for an even more momentous win by the R10 in its next race, the Le Mans 24 Hours later in the year. The much-hyped Porsche RS Spyder campaigned by Penske Racing dropped to take 2nd place in its LMP2 class, behind the Intersport Lola car. The GT1 Corvette C6R team got their revenge against the Aston Martin, although the second Corvette came within 1/3 of a second of the podium in the closing laps of the race.

2007 saw Audi again winning in the R10 TDI despite requiring more frequent refueling due to changes in American Le Mans series rules intended to even the field between gasoline and diesel powered engines. In addition to an overall win, Audi also set a track record in 2007 with Marco Werner behind the wheel in qualifying.

StatisticsEdit

McNish-ALMS-LRP-2006

Audi R8 winner 2000-2005

Rank Constructor Wins Years
1 Flag of Germany Porsche 18 1960, 1968, 1971, 1973, 197688, 2008
2 22px-Flag of Italy Ferrari 12 1956, 1958-64, 1970, 1972, 1995, 1997-98
3 Flag of Germany Audi 11 2000

2007, 2009, 201213

4 Flag-of-japansmall Nissan 4 198991, 1994
5 USAflagsmall Ford 3 1966-67, 1969
6 Flag-of-japansmall Toyota 2 1992-93
Flag of Germany BMW 1975, 1999
22px-Flag of France Peugeot 2010-11
9 22px-Flag of the United Kingdom Allard 1 1950
22px-Flag of the United Kingdom Frazer-Nash 1952
USAflagsmall Cunningham 1953
22px-Flag of Italy O.S.C.A. 1954
22px-Flag of the United Kingdom Jaguar 1955
22px-Flag of Italy Maserati 1957
USAflagsmall Chaparral 1965
USAflagsmall Riley & Scott 1996
USAflagsmall Riley 2014
RankDriverWinsYears
1 22px-Flag of Denmark Tom Kristensen 6 1999-2000, 2005-06, 2009, 2012
2 22px-Flag of Italy Rinaldo Capello 5 2001-02, 2006, 2009, 2012
3 Flag of Germany Frank Biela 4 2000, 2003-04, 07
22px-Flag of the United Kingdom Allan McNish 2004, 2006, 2009, 2012
5 USAflagsmall Mario Andretti 3 1967, 1970, 1972
Flag of Germany Hans-Joachim Stuck 1975, 1986, 1988

Overall winnersEdit

Year Drivers Team Car Tires Distance Championship
3.3 mile/5.31 km circuit
1950D USAflagsmall Fritz Koster
USAflagsmall Ralph Deshon
USAflagsmall Victor Sharpe/Tommy Cole Crosley HotShot 613.84 km
(381.42 miles)
(Sam Collier
Memorial Sebring
Grand Prix of
Endurance Six Hours) [3]
Non-championship
1951 Not held
5.382 mile/8.6 km circuit
1952 USAflagsmall Harry Gray
USAflagsmall Larry Kulok
USAflagsmall Stuart Donaldson Frazer-Nash Le Mans Replica D 1,213.445 km
(754.0 miles)
American Automobile Association (AAA)
1953 USAflagsmall Phil Walters
USAflagsmall John Fitch
USAflagsmall Briggs Cunningham Cunningham C4R-Chrysler F 1,447.766 km
(899.6 miles)
World Sportscar Championship
1954 22px-Flag of the United Kingdom Stirling Moss
USAflagsmall Bill Lloyd
USAflagsmall Briggs Cunningham O.S.C.A. MT4 P 1,405.923 km
(873.6 miles)
World Sportscar Championship
1955 22px-Flag of the United Kingdom Mike Hawthorn
USAflagsmall Phil Walters
USAflagsmall Briggs Cunningham Jaguar D-Type D 1,523.083 km
(946.4 miles)
World Sportscar Championship
1956 25px-ARGENntina Juan Manuel Fangio
22px-Flag of Italy Eugenio Castellotti
22px-Flag of Italy Scuderia Ferrari Ferrari 860 Monza E 1,623.506 km
(1,008.8 miles)
World Sportscar Championship
1957 22px-Flag of France Jean Behra
25px-ARGENntina Juan Manuel Fangio
22px-Flag of Italy Maserati Maserati 450S P 1,648.612 km
(1,024.4 miles)
World Sportscar Championship
1958 USAflagsmall Phil Hill
22px-Flag of the United Kingdom Peter Collins
22px-Flag of Italy Scuderia Ferrari Ferrari 250 TR58 E 1,673.718 km
(1,088.1 miles)
World Sportscar Championship
1959 USAflagsmall Dan Gurney
USAflagsmall Chuck Daigh
USAflagsmall Phil Hill
22px-Flag of Belgium (civil) Olivier Gendebien
22px-Flag of Italy Scuderia Ferrari Ferrari 250 TR59 Fantuzzi E 1573.295 km
(1,088.1 miles)
World Sportscar Championship
1960 Flag of Germany Hans Herrmann
22px-Flag of Belgium (civil) Olivier Gendebien
22px-Flag of Sweden Joakim Bonnier PorscheRS-60 D 1,640.243 km
(1,088.1 miles)
World Sportscar Championship
1961 USAflagsmall Phil Hill
22px-Flag of Belgium (civil) Olivier Gendebien
22px-Flag of Italy SpA Ferrari SEFAC Ferrari 250 TRI/61 D 1,740.666 km
(1,088.1 miles)
World Sportscar Championship
1962 22px-Flag of Sweden Joakim Bonnier
22px-Flag of Belgium (civil) Lucien Bianchi
22px-Flag of Italy Scuderia SSS Republica di Venezia Ferrari 250 TRI/61 D 1,723.929 km
(1,088.1 miles)
International Championship for GT Manufacturers
1963 22px-Flag of the United Kingdom John Surtees
22px-Flag of Italy Ludovico Scarfiotti
22px-Flag of Italy SpA Ferrari SEFAC Ferrari 250P D 1,749.035 km
(1,088.1 miles)
International Championship for GT Manufacturers
1964 22px-Flag of the United Kingdom Mike Parkes
22px-Flag of Italy Umberto Maglioli
22px-Flag of Italy SpA Ferrari SEFAC Ferrari 275P D 1,790.878 km
(1,088.1 miles)
International Championship for GT Manufacturers
1965 USAflagsmall Jim Hall
USAflagsmall Hap Sharp
USAflagsmall Chaparral Cars Inc. Chaparral 2-Chevrolet F 1,640.243 km
(1,088.1 miles)
International Championship for GT Manufacturers
1966 22px-Flag of the United Kingdom Ken Miles
USAflagsmall Lloyd Ruby
USAflagsmall Shelby American Inc. Ford GT40 X-1 Roadster G 1,908.038 km
(1,088.1 miles)
International Championship for Sports-Prototypes
International Championship for Sports Cars
5.4 mile/8.66 km circuit
1967 25px-Newzealand flag Bruce McLaren
USAflagsmall Mario Andretti
USAflagsmall Ford Motor Company Ford GT40 MkIV F 1,991.724 km
(1,088.1 miles)
International Championship for Sports-Prototypes
International Championship for Sports Cars
1968 20px-Flag of Switzerland Jo Siffert
Flag of Germany Hans Herrmann
Flag of Germany Porsche Automobile Company Porsche 907 D 1,983.356 km
(1,088.1 miles)
International Championship for Makes
1969 22px-Flag of Belgium (civil) Jacky Ickx
22px-Flag of the United Kingdom Jackie Oliver
22px-Flag of the United Kingdom J.W. Automotive Engineering Ford GT40 MkI F 2,000.093 km
(1,088.1 miles)
International Championship for Makes
1970 22px-Flag of Italy Ignazio Giunti
22px-Flag of Italy Nino Vaccarella
USAflagsmall Mario Andretti
22px-Flag of Italy SpA Ferrari SEFAC Ferrari 512S F 2,075.410 km
(1,088.1 miles)
International Championship for Makes
1971 22px-Flag of the United Kingdom Vic Elford
22px-Flag of France Gérard Larrousse
Flag of Germany Martini Racing Porsche 917K F 2,175.833 km
(1,088.1 miles)
International Championship for Makes
1972 USAflagsmall Mario Andretti
22px-Flag of Belgium (civil) Jacky Ickx
22px-Flag of Italy SpA Ferrari SEFAC Ferrari 312PB F 2,167.465 km
(1,088.1 miles)
World Championship for Makes
1973 USAflagsmall Hurley Haywood
USAflagsmall Peter Gregg
USAflagsmall Dave Helmick
USAflagsmall Dave Helmick Porsche Carrera RSR G 1,891.301 km
(1,088.1 miles)
IMSA GT Championship
1974 No race due to energy crisis
1975 Flag of Germany Hans-Joachim Stuck
22px-Flag of the United Kingdom Brian Redman
25px-Canadaflag Allan Moffat
Flag of Germany BMW Motorsport BMW 3.0 CSL D 1,991.724 km
(1,088.1 miles)
IMSA GT Championship
1976 USAflagsmall Al Holbert
USAflagsmall Mike Keyser
USAflagsmall Holbert Porsche-Audi Porsche Carrera RSR G 1,924.775 km
(1,088.1 miles)
IMSA GT Championship
1977 USAflagsmall George Dyer
USAflagsmall Brad Frisselle
USAflagsmall George Dyer Porsche Carrera RSR G 1,958.450 km
(1,088.1 miles)
IMSA GT Championship
1978 22px-Flag of the United Kingdom Brian Redman
USAflagsmall Charles Mendez
USAflagsmall Bob Garretson
USAflagsmall Dick Barbour Racing Porsche 935 G 2,008.461 km
(1,088.1 miles)
IMSA GT Championship
1979 USAflagsmall Bob Akin
USAflagsmall Rob McFarlin
USAflagsmall Roy Woods
USAflagsmall Dick Barbour Racing Porsche 935 G 2,000.093 km
(1,088.1 miles)
IMSA GT Championship
1980 22px-Flag of the United Kingdom John Fitzpatrick
USAflagsmall Dick Barbour
USAflagsmall Dick Barbour Racing Porsche 935 K3 G 2,117.253 km
(1,088.1 miles)
IMSA GT Championship
1981 USAflagsmall Bruce Leven
USAflagsmall Hurley Haywood
USAflagsmall Al Holbert
USAflagsmall Bayside Disposal Racing Porsche 935/80 G 2,050.304 km
(1,088.1 miles)
IMSA GT Championship
World Endurance Championship
1982 USAflagsmall John Paul, Sr.
USAflagsmall John Paul, Jr.
USAflagsmall JLP Racing Porsche 935 JLP-3 G 2,041.936 km
(1,088.1 miles)
IMSA GT Championship
4.7 mile/7.52 km circuit
1983 USAflagsmall Wayne Baker
USAflagsmall Jim Mullen
25px-Canadaflag Kees Nierop
USAflagsmall Personalized Autohaus Porsche 934

A

F 1,765.853 km
(1,088.1 miles)
IMSA GT Championship
1984 22px-Flag of Colombia Mauricio de Narvaez
Flag of Germany Hans Heyer
22px-Flag of Sweden Stefan Johansson
22px-Flag of Colombia De Narvaez Enterprises Porsche 935J G 2,057.031 km
(1,088.1 miles)
IMSA GT Championship
1985 USAflagsmall A. J. Foyt
22px-Flag of France Bob Wollek
USAflagsmall Preston Henn Porsche 962 G 2,197.817 km
(1,088.1 miles)
IMSA GT Championship
1986 Flag of Germany Hans-Joachim Stuck
22px-Flag of Austria Jo Gartner
USAflagsmall Bob Akin
USAflagsmall Bob Akin Motor Racing Porsche 962 Y 2,244.745 km
(1,088.1 miles)
IMSA GT Championship
4.2 mile/6.85 km circuit
1987 Flag of Germany Jochen Mass
USAflagsmall Bobby Rahal
USAflagsmall Bayside Disposal Racing Porsche 962 G 1,971.092 km
(1,088.1 miles)
IMSA GT Championship
1988 Flag of Germany Klaus Ludwig
Flag of Germany Hans-Joachim Stuck
USAflagsmall Bayside Disposal Racing Porsche 962 G 2,103.380 km
(1,088.1 miles)
IMSA GT Championship
1989 25px-AustraliaFLAG Geoff Brabham
USAflagsmall Chip Robinson
22px-Flag of the Netherlands Arie Luyendyk
USAflagsmall Electramotive Engineering Nissan GTP ZX-Turbo G 2,182.753 km
(1,088.1 miles)
IMSA GT Championship
1990 22px-Flag of Ireland Derek Daly
USAflagsmall Bob Earl
USAflagsmall Nissan Performance Technology Nissan GTP ZX-Turbo G 1,990.936 km
(1,088.1 miles)
IMSA GT Championship
3.72 mile/5.99 km circuit
1991 22px-Flag of Ireland Derek Daly
25px-AustraliaFLAG Geoff Brabham
25px-AustraliaFLAG Gary Brabham
USAflagsmall Nissan Performance Technology Nissan NPT-90 G 1,774.463 km
(1,088.1 miles)
IMSA GT Championship
1992 25px-ARGENntina Juan Manuel Fangio II
22px-Flag of the United Kingdom Andy Wallace
USAflagsmall All American Racers Eagle MkIII-Toyota G 2,143.646 km
(1,088.1 miles)
IMSA GT Championship
1993 25px-ARGENntina Juan Manuel Fangio II
22px-Flag of the United Kingdom Andy Wallace
USAflagsmall All American Racers Eagle MkIII-Toyota G 1369.552 km
(1,088.1 miles) B
IMSA GT Championship
1994 25px-Newzealand flag Steve Millen
USAflagsmall Johnny O'Connell
USAflagsmall John Morton
USAflagsmall Clayton Cunningham Racing Nissan 300ZX Y 1947.145 km
(1,088.1 miles)
IMSA GT Championship
1995 USAflagsmall Andy Evans
22px-Flag of Spain Fermín Vélez
22px-Flag of Belgium (civil) Eric van de Poele
USAflagsmall Scandia Motorsports Ferrari 333 SP P 1548.189 km
(1,088.1 miles) B
IMSA GT Championship
1996 Flag of South Africasmall Wayne Taylor
USAflagsmall Jim Pace
USAflagsmall Scott Sharp
USAflagsmall Doyle Racing Riley & Scott Mk III-Oldsmobile P 1935.075 km
(1,088.1 miles)
IMSA GT Championship
1997 USAflagsmall Andy Evans
22px-Flag of Spain Fermín Vélez
22px-Flag of France Yannick Dalmas
22px-Flag of Sweden Stefan Johansson
USAflagsmall Team Scandia Ferrari 333 SP G 1628.012 km
(1,088.1 miles) B
IMSA GT Championship
1998 22px-Flag of Belgium (civil) Didier Theys
22px-Flag of Italy Gianpiero Moretti
22px-Flag of Italy Mauro Baldi
USAflagsmall MOMO Doran Racing Ferrari 333 SP Y 1925.178 km
(1,088.1 miles)
IMSA GT Championship
3.74 mile/6.02 km circuit
1999 22px-Flag of Denmark Tom Kristensen
22px-Flag of Finland JJ Lehto
Flag of Germany Jörg Müller
Flag of Germany BMW Motorsport BMW V12 LMR M 1863.781 km
(1,088.1 miles)
American Le Mans Series
2000 Flag of Germany Frank Biela
22px-Flag of Denmark Tom Kristensen
22px-Flag of Italy Emanuele Pirro
Flag of Germany Audi Sport North America Audi R8 M 2143.646 km
(1,088.1 miles)
American Le Mans Series
2001 22px-Flag of Italy Rinaldo Capello
22px-Flag of Italy Michele Alboreto
22px-Flag of France Laurent Aïello
Flag of Germany Audi Sport North America Audi R8 M 2203.192 km
(1,088.1 miles)
American Le Mans Series
European Le Mans Series
2002 22px-Flag of Italy Rinaldo Capello
22px-Flag of Italy Christian Pescatori
22px-Flag of the United Kingdom Johnny Herbert
Flag of Germany Audi Sport North America Audi R8 M 2060.282 km
(1,088.1 miles)
American Le Mans Series
2003 Flag of Germany Frank Biela
Flag of Germany Marco Werner
22px-Flag of Austria Philipp Peter
Flag of Germany Infineon Team Joest Audi R8 M 2185.328 km
(1,088.1 miles)
American Le Mans Series
2004 22px-Flag of the United Kingdom Allan McNish
Flag of Germany Frank Biela
Flag of Germany Pierre Kaffer
22px-Flag of the United Kingdom Audi Sport UK Team Veloqx Audi R8 M 2084.101 km
(1,088.1 miles)
American Le Mans Series
2005 22px-Flag of Finland JJ Lehto
Flag of Germany Marco Werner
22px-Flag of Denmark Tom Kristensen
USAflagsmall ADT Champion Racing Audi R8 M 2149.601 km
(1,088.1 miles)
American Le Mans Series
2006 22px-Flag of Denmark Tom Kristensen
22px-Flag of the United Kingdom Allan McNish
22px-Flag of Italy Rinaldo Capello
USAflagsmall Audi Sport North America Audi R10 TDI
(Diesel)
M 2078.145 km
(1,088.1 miles)
American Le Mans Series
2007 Flag of Germany Frank Biela
22px-Flag of Italy Emanuele Pirro
Flag of Germany Marco Werner
USAflagsmall Audi Sport North America Audi R10 TDI
(Diesel)
M 2165.8 km
(1,088.1 miles)
American Le Mans Series
2008 Flag of Germany Timo Bernhard
22px-Flag of France Romain Dumas
22px-Flag of France Emmanuel Collard
USAflagsmall Penske Racing Porsche RS Spyder M 2088.45 km
(1,088.1 miles)
American Le Mans Series
2009 22px-Flag of Denmark Tom Kristensen
22px-Flag of the United Kingdom Allan McNish
22px-Flag of Italy Rinaldo Capello
Flag of Germany Audi Sport Team Joest Audi R15 TDI
(Diesel)
M 2278.85 km
(1,088.1 miles)C
American Le Mans Series
2010 22px-Flag of Spain Marc Gené
22px-Flag of Austria Alexander Wurz
22px-Flag of the United Kingdom Anthony Davidson
22px-Flag of France Team Peugeot Total Peugeot 908 HDi FAP
(Diesel)
M 2185.328 km
(1,088.1 miles)
American Le Mans Series
2011 22px-Flag of France Loïc Duval
22px-Flag of France Nicolas Lapierre
22px-Flag of France Olivier Panis
22px-Flag of France Team Oreca Matmut Peugeot 908 HDi FAP
(Diesel)
M 1975.4 km
(1,088.1 miles)
American Le Mans Series
Intercontinental Le Mans Cup
2012 22px-Flag of Denmark Tom Kristensen
22px-Flag of the United Kingdom Allan McNish
22px-Flag of Italy Rinaldo Capello
Flag of Germany Audi Sport Team Joest Audi R18 TDI
(Diesel)
M 1933.8 km
(1,088.1 miles)
FIA World Endurance Championship
American Le Mans Series
2013 20px-Flag of Switzerland Marcel Fässler
22px-Flag of France Benoît Tréluyer
22px-Flag of the United Kingdom Oliver Jarvis
Flag of Germany Audi Sport Team Joest Audi R18 e-tron quattro
(hybrid diesel)
M 2191.3 km
(1,088.1 miles)
American Le Mans Series
2014 22px-Flag of the United Kingdom Marino Franchitti
USAflagsmall Scott Pruett
25px-Mexicoflag Memo Rojas
USAflagsmall Ganassi Racing Riley Mk XXVI-Ford Ecoboost C 1,751.1 km
(1,088.1 miles)
United SportsCar Championship
A The car was in fact, a Porsche 935 K3 that has been modified with a single plug cylinder head and a front nose to resemble a Porsche 934 to comply to IMSA GTO specification.[4]
B These races were stopped for a period of time due to heavy rain and/or accidents. The race clock was not stopped for these periods and counted towards the 12 Hours.
C Race record for most distance covered.
D Technically the race "winner" in 1950 was the Crosley Hot Shot of Fritz Koster / Ralph Deshon, entered by Victor Sharpe Jr. of Tampa. While the Wacker / Burrell Allard did cover more distance, the race was run under the "Index of Performance" handicapping rules and the Crosley, with a much smaller engine than the Cadillac-powered Allard, is listed in the Official Sebring Record Book as the winner.

ReferencesEdit

  1. McCluggage, Denise (February 20, 2012). "Racing Through History". Autoweek 62 (4): 66–67. 
  2. Watkins, Gary (March 19, 2012). "Fab Five". Autoweek 62 (6): 77. http://www.autoweek.com/article/20120315/ALMS/120319906&template=mobileart. Retrieved April 12, 2012. 
  3. Sam Collier Memorial Sebring Grand Prix of Endurance Six Hours, www.racingsportscars.com Retrieved on 31 July 2012
  4. Starkey, John. 930 to 935: The Turbo Porsches. Renwick & Starkey Ltd.. 

External links Edit

Smallwikipedialogo.png This page uses some content from Wikipedia. The original article was at 12 Hours of Sebring. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with Autopedia, the text of Wikipedia is available under the GNU Free Documentation License.

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